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Amador García-Ramos, Francisco Luis Pestaña-Melero, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Francisco Javier Rojas and Guy Gregory Haff

is the ballistic variant of the BP. It is well documented that the BPT produces significantly greater force, velocity, power, and muscle activity than the traditional BP. 7 , 20 Therefore, it is of interest to determine the load–velocity relationship in all the variants of the BP exercise included

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Antonio Dello Iacono, Marco Beato and Israel Halperin

division of repetitions within a given set into small clusters (eg, 2–6) of repetitions (eg, 2–3) that are separated by brief rest periods (eg, 10–60 s). Cluster-set configuration allows subjects to maintain greater outputs of force, velocity, and mostly power at a given load when compared with traditional

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Roland van den Tillaar, Erna von Heimburg and Guro Strøm Solli

frequently used exercise tests in exercise physiology and sport science. 5 The traditional and frequently used protocol to measure VO 2 max is the graded exercise test (GXT) performed as a fixed incremental stepwise test to exhaustion, typically performed on a motorized treadmill. 6 However, this

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Nancie H. Herbold, Bridget K. Visconti, Susan Frates and Linda Bandini

This study examined the traditional (single and multivitamin/mineral supplements) and nontraditional supplement (herbals, botanicals, and other biologic and nutrient supplements) use by female athletes. Frequency, reasons for use, and sources of supplement information were assessed with a self-report questionnaire. Participants were 162 collegiate female varsity athletes. More than half of all athletes used some type of supplement at least once a month (65.4%). Thirty-six percent (n = 58) of the sample used a multivitamin and mineral with iron. Twelve percent (n = 19) reported amino acid/protein supplement use and 17% (n = 29) used an herbal/botanical supplement. The most frequently cited reason for supplement use was “good health” (60.1%). A major source of information on supplements reported was family (53%). With the general rise in supplement use, nutrition education on the use of traditional and non-traditional supplements is warranted.

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Jennifer E. Carter and Anita E. Kelly

This study explored the moderating effect of psychological reactance on the success of traditional and paradoxical mental imagery treatments that were aimed at reducing anxiety in athletes. Intramural college basketball players (N = 73) were recruited through advertisements for a free-throw contest, and their anxiety and free-throw performance were measured following treatment in one of three groups: confidence imagery, paradoxical imagery, or control. As predicted, in the paradoxical condition, high-reactant athletes reported having significantly lower somatic state anxiety and significantly higher state self-confidence than did low-reactant athletes. In contrast, high- and low-reactant athletes did not differ in their anxiety scores in both the confidence imagery and control conditions. Results suggested that reactance does moderate the effect of the success of traditional and paradoxical imagery treatments for reducing athletes’ anxiety.

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Guro Strøm Solli, Pål Haugnes, Jan Kocbach, Roland van den Tillaar, Per Øyvind Torvik and Øyvind Sandbakk

causing minimal fatigue. 4 , 7 , 11 In endurance sports, warm-up before a competition is traditionally prescribed with a general part of 10 to 20 minutes at low intensity, followed by a specific part of 10 to 20 minutes, including high-intensity activity specific to the competition. 1 This coincides with

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Iñigo Mujika, Rafa González de Txabarri, Sara Maldonado-Martín and David B. Pyne

The warm-up procedure in traditional rowing usually involves continuous low-intensity rowing and short bouts of intense exercise, lasting about 60 min.

Purpose:

To compare the effects of a traditional and an experimental 30-min warm-up of lower intensity on indoor rowing time-trial performance.

Methods:

Fourteen highly trained male rowers (age 25.9 ± 5.3 y, height 1.86 ± 0.06 m, mass 80.4 ± 5.2 kg, peak aerobic power 352.0 ± 24.4 W; mean ± SD) performed 2 indoor rowing trials 12 d apart. Rowers were randomly assigned to either LONG or SHORT warm-ups using a crossover design, each followed by a 10-min all-out fixed-seat rowing-ergometer time trial.

Results:

Mean power output during the time trial was substantially higher after SHORT (322 ± 18 vs 316 ± 17 W), with rowers generating substantially more power in the initial 7.5 min of the time trial after SHORT. LONG elicited substantially higher mean warm-up heart rate than SHORT (134 ± 11 vs 121 ± 13 beats/min), higher pre–time-trial rating of perceived exertion (10.2 ± 1.4 vs 7.6 ± 1.7) and blood lactate (1.7 ± 0.4 mM vs 1.2 ± 0.2 mM), but similar heart rate (100 ± 14 vs 102 ± 9 beats/min). No substantial differences were observed between LONG and SHORT in stroke rate (39.4 ± 2.0 vs 39.4 ± 2.2 strokes/min) or mean heart rate (171 ± 6 vs 171 ± 8 beats/min) during the time trial, nor in blood lactate after it (11.8 ± 2.5 vs 12.1 ± 2.0 mM).

Conclusion:

A warm-up characterized by lower intensity and shorter duration should elicit less physiological strain and promote substantially higher power production in the initial stages of a rowing time trial.

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Live S. Luteberget, Truls Raastad, Olivier Seynnes and Matt Spencer

Fast acceleration is an important performance factor in handball. In addition to traditional sprint training (TST), resisted-sprint training (RST) is a method often used to improve acceleration. However, studies on RST show conflicting results, and underlying mechanisms have not been studied.

Purpose:

To compare the effects of RST, by sled towing, against TST on sprint performance and muscle architecture.

Methods:

Participants (n = 18) were assigned to either RST or TST and completed 2 training sessions of RST or TST per week (10 wk), in addition to their normal team training. Sprint tests (10 and 30 m) and measurements of muscle architecture were performed pre- and posttraining.

Results:

Beneficial effects were found in the 30-m-sprint test for both groups (mean; ±90% CL: TST = −0.31; ±0.19 s, RST = −0.16; ±0.13 s), with unclear differences between the groups. Only TST had a beneficial effect on 10-m time (−0.04; ±0.04 s), with a likely difference between the 2 groups (85%, ES = 0.60). Both groups had a decrease in pennation angle (−6.0; ±3.3% for TST and −2.8; ±2.0% for RST), which had a nearly perfect correlation with percentage change in 10-m-sprint performance (r = .92). A small increase in fascicle length (5.3; ±3.9% and 4.0; ±2.1% for TST and RST, respectively) was found, with unclear differences between groups.

Discussion:

TST appears to be more effective than RST in enhancing 10-m-sprint time. Both groups showed similar effects in 30-m-sprint time. A similar, yet small, effect of sprint training on muscle architecture was observed in both groups.

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Joanna E. Gelinas and Greg Reid

The purpose was to determine whether traditional learn-to-swim progressions, leading to a 10-m front and 10-m back swim, were developmentally valid for children with physical disabilities. Forty children (22 boys, 18 girls) ages 5 to 12 years participated. They were classified according to disability type, functional sport classification, mode of ambulation, and flotation device use. Developmental validity was assessed by testing the children on rhythmic breathing, front float, front glide, front swim, back float, back glide, and back swim. Each skill was deemed successful if the child accomplished all performance criteria of that skill. Atypical progression was evident if a child performed a skill without the ability to perform skills previously listed in that progression. Atypical progression occurred in 32 (80%) children in the front skills and 22 (55%) in the back skills, which indicates that the traditional learn-to-swim progressions for both the 10-m front swim and the 10-m back swim were not developmentally valid for most children with physical disabilities in the conducted research.

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Harry G. Banyard, James J. Tufano, Jose Delgado, Steve W. Thompson and Kazunori Nosaka

, no studies have compared VBT to more traditional PBT methods. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of the LVP, FS VL , VS VL , and PBT methods on the mechanical capacities of the lower body during a typical strength-oriented training session in a free-weight exercise