resources, and (l) administration were developed individually, but combined eventually to help produce graduates for several decades in either traditional (i.e., core focused) or integrated (i.e., involving other disciplines) curricula that focus on issues of theoretical and/or practical significance
Chad Seifried, Chris Barnhill and J. Michael Martinez
Jennifer E. Carter and Anita E. Kelly
This study explored the moderating effect of psychological reactance on the success of traditional and paradoxical mental imagery treatments that were aimed at reducing anxiety in athletes. Intramural college basketball players (N = 73) were recruited through advertisements for a free-throw contest, and their anxiety and free-throw performance were measured following treatment in one of three groups: confidence imagery, paradoxical imagery, or control. As predicted, in the paradoxical condition, high-reactant athletes reported having significantly lower somatic state anxiety and significantly higher state self-confidence than did low-reactant athletes. In contrast, high- and low-reactant athletes did not differ in their anxiety scores in both the confidence imagery and control conditions. Results suggested that reactance does moderate the effect of the success of traditional and paradoxical imagery treatments for reducing athletes’ anxiety.
Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Craig A. Morehead
To date, studies examining physical activity (PA) levels have largely been dedicated to the school setting, while there is little known about the activity levels of children who participate in traditional or summer day camps.
Participants were 83 11- to 12-year-old campers who partook in either Sport Education or traditional instruction at a large residential summer camp. All lessons were video recorded and coded using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT), which categorizes PA levels as well as contextual characteristics.
Results indicated that campers who participated in Sport Education spent a higher percentage of time (61.6%) engaged in moderate to vigorous activity than campers in the traditional activity unit (42.2%). In addition, campers spent less time idly within Sport Education (27.9%), than its counterpart (39.5%).
These findings indicate that utilizing the Sport Education model may provide campers with higher levels of PA within this context.
Chris Lonsdale, Ken Hodge and Elaine A. Rose
The purpose of this study was to compare participant responses to a questionnaire delivered via the Internet with data collected using a traditional paper and pencil format distributed via postal mail. Athletes (N = 214, mean age 26.53 years) representing 18 sports from the New Zealand Academy of Sport were randomly assigned into two groups and completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001). There was a noticeable trend (p = .07, two-tailed) toward a better response rate in the online group (57.07%) compared with the postal group (46.63%). Furthermore, online questionnaires were returned faster and contained fewer missing responses. A series of nested, multigroup confirmatory factor analyses indicated that there were no significant group differences in the factor structure or latent mean structures of the ABQ.
Giorgos Sofianidis, Vassilia Hatzitaki, Stella Douka and Giorgos Grouios
This preliminary study examined the effect of a 10-wk traditional Greek dance program on static and dynamic balance indices in healthy elderly adults. Twenty-six community-dwelling older adults were randomly assigned to either an intervention group who took supervised Greek traditional dance classes for 10 wk (1 hr, 2 sessions/week, n = 14), or a control group (n = 12). Balance was assessed pre- and postintervention by recording the center-of-pressure (COP) variations and trunk kinematics during performance of the Sharpened-Romberg test, 1-leg (OL) stance, and dynamic weight shifting (WS). After practice, the dance group significantly decreased COP displacement and trunk sway in OL stance. A significant increase in the range of trunk rotation was noted during performance of dynamic WS in the sagittal and frontal planes. These findings support the use of traditional dance as an effective means of physical activity for improving static and dynamic balance control in the elderly.
Silvia Aranda-García, Albert Iricibar, Antoni Planas, Joan A. Prat-Subirana and Rosa M. Angulo-Barroso
This study evaluates the separate effect and retention of 12-week traditional (TE) and horse (HE) exercise programs on physical function in healthy older participants (61 to 87 years old). Thirty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three groups: TE (n = 17), HE (n = 10), and control group (n = 11). TE and HE underwent a supervised exercise program (3 day/week). Maximal gait speed, muscle strength, and body balance were assessed at weeks 0, 12, and 16. Only TE and HE displayed significant improvements (P < .05) in knee extensor strength, and only HE had faster gait speed. Marginal balance improvements were found only in HE in the medial-lateral direction. However, TE showed larger improvements in handgrip than HE. The largest retention was in knee extensor strength but most of the exercise effects were lost in the follow-up. Besides TE, exercise with a horse may be an alternative option to older adults, provided that they want to interact with the animal.
Scott Tainsky and Mateusz Jasielec
This study uses consumer-theory modeling in exploring the broadcasts of games not featuring a local team. Our general linear mixed model controls for the variation in consumption attributable to traditionally employed determinants of demand and highlights factors related to home team loyalty. The study concludes that while traditional shifters are likewise useful in estimating demand for out-of-market games, fan allegiance to their local team plays a central role in the viewership of all games, even those in which the local team is not explicitly involved. The observation of compositional inheritance effects underscores the significance of local identification in league-wide interest, a phenomenon of growing importance with the ever-increasing availability of out-of-market games.
Lindsey M. Eliopulos and Jay Johnson
The purpose of this article is to examine the sport–celebrity relationship of singer–actress Jessica Simpson and Dallas Cowboys quarterback Tony Romo. This qualitative analysis of 100 magazine and 100 newspaper articles that coincided with the first publicized notion of the “Jessica [Simpson] Jinx” reveals the prevailing dominant ideologies of patriarchal structures, traditional gender roles, hegemonic masculinity, and deviance. This study uncovers typologies that mirror the archetypal sporting partnership, for example, Simpson’s feminine position as a “supporter” and her function as an “antagonist” (e.g., the femme fatale, Yoko Ono) and Romo’s position as a hegemonic male (the new-laddist, maverick sporting star) and victim. Through developing these themes, the researchers illustrate the concepts of villainization and victimization in the mass media, where Simpson was portrayed unfavorably. Romo, conversely, was portrayed favorably in the press, suggesting the need to maintain the patriarchal order while restraining female dominance.
Samantha F. Ehrlich, Amanda J. Casteel, Scott E. Crouter, Paul R. Hibbing, Monique M. Hedderson, Susan D. Brown, Maren Galarce, Dawn P. Coe, David R. Bassett and Assiamira Ferrara
on selecting a wear-time estimation method for use with wrist-worn devices. To the best of our knowledge, no published study has compared various wear-time estimation methods to traditional diary logs for wrist-worn devices in regard to wear-time and the corresponding amounts of time spent in
Nicole McCarthy, Kirsty Hope, Rachel Sutherland, Elizabeth Campbell, Rebecca Hodder, Luke Wolfenden and Nicole Nathan
traditional uniforms, that is, leather shoes with shirts and pants for boys, and a dress, tunic, or skirt, and a shirt with leather shoes and socks or stockings for girls. A 2012 qualitative study of 54 primary school children from 6 schools in South Australia found that girls reported their uniform