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Amador García-Ramos, Francisco Luis Pestaña-Melero, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Francisco Javier Rojas and Guy Gregory Haff

is the ballistic variant of the BP. It is well documented that the BPT produces significantly greater force, velocity, power, and muscle activity than the traditional BP. 7 , 20 Therefore, it is of interest to determine the load–velocity relationship in all the variants of the BP exercise included

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Antonio Dello Iacono, Marco Beato and Israel Halperin

division of repetitions within a given set into small clusters (eg, 2–6) of repetitions (eg, 2–3) that are separated by brief rest periods (eg, 10–60 s). Cluster-set configuration allows subjects to maintain greater outputs of force, velocity, and mostly power at a given load when compared with traditional

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Carlos Marta, Ana R. Alves, Pedro T. Esteves, Natalina Casanova, Daniel Marinho, Henrique P. Neiva, Roberto Aguado-Jimenez, Alicia M. Alonso-Martínez, Mikel Izquierdo and Mário C. Marques

conditions ( 10 ). Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effects of ST versus traditional strength training on explosive strength in prepubescent boys. Methods Subjects The sample consisted of 57 prepubescent boys aged between 10 and 11 years old (from fifth and sixth grades) in a Portuguese

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Roland van den Tillaar, Erna von Heimburg and Guro Strøm Solli

frequently used exercise tests in exercise physiology and sport science. 5 The traditional and frequently used protocol to measure VO 2 max is the graded exercise test (GXT) performed as a fixed incremental stepwise test to exhaustion, typically performed on a motorized treadmill. 6 However, this

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Nancie H. Herbold, Bridget K. Visconti, Susan Frates and Linda Bandini

This study examined the traditional (single and multivitamin/mineral supplements) and nontraditional supplement (herbals, botanicals, and other biologic and nutrient supplements) use by female athletes. Frequency, reasons for use, and sources of supplement information were assessed with a self-report questionnaire. Participants were 162 collegiate female varsity athletes. More than half of all athletes used some type of supplement at least once a month (65.4%). Thirty-six percent (n = 58) of the sample used a multivitamin and mineral with iron. Twelve percent (n = 19) reported amino acid/protein supplement use and 17% (n = 29) used an herbal/botanical supplement. The most frequently cited reason for supplement use was “good health” (60.1%). A major source of information on supplements reported was family (53%). With the general rise in supplement use, nutrition education on the use of traditional and non-traditional supplements is warranted.

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Guro Strøm Solli, Pål Haugnes, Jan Kocbach, Roland van den Tillaar, Per Øyvind Torvik and Øyvind Sandbakk

causing minimal fatigue. 4 , 7 , 11 In endurance sports, warm-up before a competition is traditionally prescribed with a general part of 10 to 20 minutes at low intensity, followed by a specific part of 10 to 20 minutes, including high-intensity activity specific to the competition. 1 This coincides with

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Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Craig A. Morehead

Background:

To date, studies examining physical activity (PA) levels have largely been dedicated to the school setting, while there is little known about the activity levels of children who participate in traditional or summer day camps.

Methods:

Participants were 83 11- to 12-year-old campers who partook in either Sport Education or traditional instruction at a large residential summer camp. All lessons were video recorded and coded using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT), which categorizes PA levels as well as contextual characteristics.

Results:

Results indicated that campers who participated in Sport Education spent a higher percentage of time (61.6%) engaged in moderate to vigorous activity than campers in the traditional activity unit (42.2%). In addition, campers spent less time idly within Sport Education (27.9%), than its counterpart (39.5%).

Conclusions:

These findings indicate that utilizing the Sport Education model may provide campers with higher levels of PA within this context.

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Amador García-Ramos, Slobodan Jaric, Paulino Padial and Belén Feriche

This study aimed to (1) evaluate the linearity of the force–velocity relationship, as well as the reliability of maximum force (F 0), maximum velocity (V 0), slope (a), and maximum power (P 0); (2) compare these parameters between the traditional and ballistic bench press (BP); and (3) determine the correlation of F 0 with the directly measured BP 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Thirty-two men randomly performed 2 sessions of traditional BP and 2 sessions of ballistic BP during 2 consecutive weeks. Both the maximum and mean values of force and velocity were recorded when loaded by 20–70% of 1RM. All force–velocity relationships were strongly linear (r > .99). While F 0 and P 0 were highly reliable (ICC: 0.91–0.96, CV: 3.8–5.1%), lower reliability was observed for V 0 and a (ICC: 0.49–0.81, CV: 6.6–11.8%). Trivial differences between exercises were found for F 0 (ES: < 0.2), however the a was higher for the traditional BP (ES: 0.68–0.94), and V 0 (ES: 1.04–1.48) and P 0 (ES: 0.65–0.72) for the ballistic BP. The F 0 strongly correlated with BP 1RM (r: 0.915–0.938). The force–velocity relationship is useful to assess the upper body maximal capabilities to generate force, velocity, and power.

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Chris Lonsdale, Ken Hodge and Elaine A. Rose

The purpose of this study was to compare participant responses to a questionnaire delivered via the Internet with data collected using a traditional paper and pencil format distributed via postal mail. Athletes (N = 214, mean age 26.53 years) representing 18 sports from the New Zealand Academy of Sport were randomly assigned into two groups and completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001). There was a noticeable trend (p = .07, two-tailed) toward a better response rate in the online group (57.07%) compared with the postal group (46.63%). Furthermore, online questionnaires were returned faster and contained fewer missing responses. A series of nested, multigroup confirmatory factor analyses indicated that there were no significant group differences in the factor structure or latent mean structures of the ABQ.

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Iñigo Mujika, Rafa González de Txabarri, Sara Maldonado-Martín and David B. Pyne

The warm-up procedure in traditional rowing usually involves continuous low-intensity rowing and short bouts of intense exercise, lasting about 60 min.

Purpose:

To compare the effects of a traditional and an experimental 30-min warm-up of lower intensity on indoor rowing time-trial performance.

Methods:

Fourteen highly trained male rowers (age 25.9 ± 5.3 y, height 1.86 ± 0.06 m, mass 80.4 ± 5.2 kg, peak aerobic power 352.0 ± 24.4 W; mean ± SD) performed 2 indoor rowing trials 12 d apart. Rowers were randomly assigned to either LONG or SHORT warm-ups using a crossover design, each followed by a 10-min all-out fixed-seat rowing-ergometer time trial.

Results:

Mean power output during the time trial was substantially higher after SHORT (322 ± 18 vs 316 ± 17 W), with rowers generating substantially more power in the initial 7.5 min of the time trial after SHORT. LONG elicited substantially higher mean warm-up heart rate than SHORT (134 ± 11 vs 121 ± 13 beats/min), higher pre–time-trial rating of perceived exertion (10.2 ± 1.4 vs 7.6 ± 1.7) and blood lactate (1.7 ± 0.4 mM vs 1.2 ± 0.2 mM), but similar heart rate (100 ± 14 vs 102 ± 9 beats/min). No substantial differences were observed between LONG and SHORT in stroke rate (39.4 ± 2.0 vs 39.4 ± 2.2 strokes/min) or mean heart rate (171 ± 6 vs 171 ± 8 beats/min) during the time trial, nor in blood lactate after it (11.8 ± 2.5 vs 12.1 ± 2.0 mM).

Conclusion:

A warm-up characterized by lower intensity and shorter duration should elicit less physiological strain and promote substantially higher power production in the initial stages of a rowing time trial.