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Michael G. Miller, David C. Berry, Susan Bullard and Roger Gilders

Context:

Land and aquatic plyometrics have clinical relevance for exercise, sport performance, and rehabilitation, yet study is limited comparing both.

Objective:

To compare the effects of land-based and aquatic-based plyometric-training programs on performance variables, muscle soreness, and range of motion (ROM).

Setting:

Aquatic facility and biomechanics laboratory.

Subjects:

Forty subjects randomly assigned to 3 groups: land (n = 13), water (n = 13), and control (n = 14).

Main Outcome Measures:

Performance variables, muscle soreness, and ROM were measured before and after an 8-week training period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a Bonferroni post hoc test determined significance.

Results:

ANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups with respect to plantar-flexion ROM (P < .05). Paired t test determined that the aquatic group significantly increased muscle power pretest to posttest (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Results indicate that aquatic plyometric training can be an alternative approach to enhancing performance.

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Elizabeth F. Teel, Stephen W. Marshall, L. Gregory Appelbaum, Claudio L. Battaglini, Kevin A. Carneiro, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, Johna K. Register-Mihalik and Jason P. Mihalik

sessions were missed throughout this study, with missed sessions evenly distributed throughout the training period. Previous concussion intervention protocols show similar levels of adherence for both healthy 28 and concussed 13 , 29 populations. In addition, the high recruitment and low dropout rates in

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Karenina Arrais Guida Modesto, Pedro Ferreira Alves de Oliveira, Hellora Gonçalves Fonseca, Klaus Porto Azevedo, Vinicius Guzzoni, Martim Bottaro, Nicolas Babault and Joao Luiz Quagliotti Durigan

in isometric conditions. 16 , 19 Therefore, the hypothesis of the evaluation modality can be rejected. Nevertheless, the duration between the end of the training period and posttraining evaluation could influence the diverging results. Indeed, this period is generally not standardized and not

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Diego Alonso-Fernandez, Yaiza Taboada-Iglesias, Tania García-Remeseiro and Águeda Gutiérrez-Sánchez

increase of 9.65% in the LG and 10.31% in the MG after the training period, there being disparity in the literature regarding this architectural variable. Thus, in a study on the vastus lateralis, Blazevich et al 15 obtained an increase of 11.0%, whereas Seynnes et al 28 obtained an increase of 7

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Andrew G. Baker, William G. Webright and David H. Perrin

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a resistive tubing kick training protocol on postural sway in uninjured collegiate wrestlers. An experimental group (n = 10) performed a progressive resistive tubing kick training protocol three times per week for 6 weeks. A control group (n = 9) performed no resistive tubing training during the 6 weeks. Postural sway (stability index) was assessed before and after the 6-week training period. ANOVAs demonstrated no significant interactions, although significant main effects were found for group and eye condition. The experimental group demonstrated less postural sway than the control group regardless of training, and postural sway was greater with the eyes closed than with the eyes open. Resistive tubing kick training does not significantly improve postural sway in healthy collegiate wrestlers. Further research should examine the potential benefits of proprioceptive training using a greater intensity of training and/or using subjects who have a greater potential for improvement.

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Damien M. Hess, Christopher J. Joyce, Brent L. Arnold and Bruce M. Gansneder

Context:

Agility training has been proposed as an important tool in rehabilitation. However, it is unclear which types of agility training are most useful.

Objective:

To assess the effects of agility training on balance in individuals with functionally unstable ankles.

Design:

A 2-group experimental design with repeated measures.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Patients:

Twenty college-aged volunteers, each with 1 functionally unstable ankle, were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups.

Interventions:

Subjects in the experimental group performed agility training 3 times per week for 4 weeks.

Main Outcome Measures:

Subjects were tested for static single-leg balance before and after the training period. Anterior/posterior sway amplitude, medial/lateral sway amplitude, and sway index were assessed using the Chattex Balance System.

Results:

No significant differences in balance were found after the agility training.

Conclusions:

Agility training did not improve static single-leg balance in subjects with functionally unstable ankles.

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Rafael Gnat, Agata Dziewońska, Maciej Biały and Martyna Wieczorek

 al., 2011 ; Hides, Stanton, McMahon, Sims, & Richardson, 2008 ), and this is in line with the initial subjective experiences of our participants. However, this potential influence was eliminated because, after the preexperimental training period, both IA and GA became equally familiar to the subjects

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Pekka Kannus, Lauren Cook and Denise Alosa

This study analyzed the normality and variability of the data outputs of isokinetic endurance parameters in 10 healthy men and 10 healthy women. The test consisted of 25 maximal reciprocal contractions of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles. In addition, half of the subjects underwent a 7-week training period after which the endurance test was repeated. The results showed that the consistency of the absolute endurance measurements (work performed during the last 5 repetitions [WL5] and total work during 25 repetitions [TW25] was equal to that of the reference parameter, the peak torque. In addition, the changes after 7 weeks training were very similar; values for all these parameters increased significantly. The relative endurance parameter (WL5/work during the first 5 repetitions) did not change due to training since both WL5 and WF5 improved approximately the same amount. In conclusion, the absolute measurements of muscular endurance can be recommended for clinical use, while the endurance index should not be used routinely.

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Crayton L. Moss and Scott Grimmer

The purpose of this study was to determine whether twitch contractile properties and strength of the triceps surae could be altered by 8 weeks of low-repetition or high-repetition isotonic exercise. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the low- or high-repetition group. Before- and after-training measurements were recorded for strength and contractile properties. The contractile variables of the muscle twitch were latency, time to peak force, peak force, half-contraction time, and half-relaxation time. Strength measurements were determined utilizing a one repetition maximal (1-RM) heel-raise testing device. A two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to test the effect of training on each variable. Both groups showed a significant increase in 1-RM and half-relaxation time and a decrease in electrical stimulation current after the 8-week training period. It was concluded that if high-repetition exercises develop slow-twitch Type I muscle fibers and low-repetition exercises develop fast-twitch Type II fibers, training programs must be designed specifically according to the desired outcome.

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Radamés M.V. Medeiros, Eduardo S. Alves, Valdir A. Lemos, Paulo A. Schwingel, Andressa da Silva, Roberto Vital, Alexandre S. Vieira, Murilo M. Barreto, Edilson A. Rocha, Sergio Tufik and Marco T. de Mello

Context:

Body-composition assessments of high-performance athletes are very important for identifying physical performance potential. Although the relationship between the kinanthropometric characteristics and performance abilities of Olympic swimmers is extremely important, this subject is not completely understood for Paralympic swimmers.

Objective:

To investigate the relationship between body composition and sport performance in Brazilian Paralympic swimmers 6 mo after training.

Design:

Experimental pre/posttest design.

Setting:

Research laboratory and field evaluations of swimming were conducted to verify the 50-m freestyle time of each athlete.

Participants:

17 Brazilian Paralympic swim team athletes (12 men, 5 women).

Main Outcome Measures:

Body-composition assessments were performed using a BOD POD, and swimming performance was assessed using the 50-m freestyle, which was performed twice: before and after 6 mo of training.

Results:

Increased lean mass and significantly reduced relative fat mass and swimming time (P < .05) were observed 6 mo after training. Furthermore, a positive correlation between body-fat percentage and performance (r = .66, P < .05) was observed, but there was no significant correlation between body density and performance (r = –.14, P > .05).

Conclusions:

After a 6-mo training period, Paralympic swimmers presented reduced fat mass and increased lean body mass associated with performance, as measured by 50-m freestyle time. These data suggest that reduced fat-mass percentage was significantly correlated with improved swimming performance in Paralympic athletes.