The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training two times per week versus three times per week on strength development in older women. Subjects were 59 women between the ages of 40 and 65 years. Variables measured were body weight, percent fat, girth, flexibility, and strength one-repetition maximums (1RM). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: twice a week (2x) or three times a week (3x). Total training volume for the two groups was approximately equal and the training period lasted eight weeks. Pre-to-post results were analyzed within and between groups. Both training protocols were effective for reducing body fat and increasing strength as measured by the 1RM. The 3x group showed greater gains in increasing 1RMs in the Standing Lat Pull, Triceps Extension, and Leg Press. Most girth measurements in both groups did not significantly change, but both groups increased flexibility. In an age when time demands on women are increasing, resistive training two times a week is effective for producing strength gains.
Ro Di Brezzo, Inza L. Fort and George L. Hoyt III
Ronnie Lidor, Gershon Tenenbaum, Gal Ziv and Vladimir Issurin
Deliberate practice (DP), an activity aimed at enhancing an individual’s performance, has been reported to be crucial for achieving a state of expertise in various domains, such as education, music, and sport. In this article, the relationships between DP and the process of athletic performance adaptation are explored by elaborating on the main principle of the theory of training—periodization. We argue that periodization should be considered as a mechanism for ensuring DP, and that the implementation of periodization principles (cycles and phases) in DP activities can facilitate adaptation processes leading to expert performance. We describe the characteristics and features of DP, review a series of studies on DP and athletic performance (N = 21), discuss the importance of periodization in sport training, and outline a number of benefits of periodization. A model that emphasizes the link between periodization and DP activities in each phase of sport development is proposed, and a number of research approaches to address periodization are discussed.
April Henning and Jörg Krieger
1970 and 1972 IAAF Congresses, even though discussions about the extension of the training period, athletes appearing in advertisements for pay, and loss of earnings continued to appear on the IAAF’s agenda. There was a strong desire among some Council members to adapt the rules to the realities of the
Kelley Strohacker and Cory T. Beaumont
the time to completion and publication of randomized efficacy trials . Journal of the American Medical Association, 279 ( 4 ), 281 – 286 . PubMed ID: 9450711 doi:10.1001/jama.279.4.281 10.1001/jama.279.4.281 Issurin , V.B. ( 2010 ). New horizons for the methodology and physiology of training
James Stephens and Susan Hillier
RCT with a similar clinical group and an active control group. 3. Stephens et al. ( 2006 ). Repeat the hamstring-lengthening study using a formal motor-learning design. Look at how long practice sessions (duration) need to be and how long a training period (Frequency × Time) needs to be to produce the