Reduced respiratory muscle strength in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) may affect speech respiratory variables such as maximum phonation duration (MPD), initiation volume, and expired mean airflow. Researchers randomly assigned adolescents with DS (N = 28) to either 12 weeks of swim training (DS-ST) or a control group (DS-NT). Repeated measures MANOVA demonstrated a significant increase in MPD for DS-ST participants from pretest to posttest, t(11) = –3.44, p = 0.006, that was not maintained at follow-up, t(11) = 6.680, p < .001. No significant change was observed for DS-NT participants across time, F(2, 11) = 4.20, p = 0.044. The lack of long-term change in DS-ST participants may be related to the relatively short training period.
Amanda Faith Casey and Claudia Emes
Gordon E. Marchiori, Albert E. Wall and E. Wendy Bedingfield
This study investigated the learning of the stationary hockey slap shot by two physically awkward boys; for comparison purposes, two age-matched boys performed the same skill. In an initial data collection session, the physically awkward and the control boys performed three successful slap shots. Following this, the physically awkward subjects practiced 400 trials at home every 2 weeks over a 6-week training period, under the supervision of their parents. Performance data were collected every 2 weeks, after 400, 800, and 1,200 practice trials. Cinematographic analysis of each subject’s three successful responses led to an examination of the kinematics, phasing, and timing of the slap shot. In the initial baseline session, the control subjects exhibited consistency of performance; however, even after 1,200 trials of supervised practice the performance of the two physically awkward children was extremely variable.
Phillip D. Tomporowski and Larry D. Jameson
Institutionalized severely and profoundly mentally retarded adults participated in two exercise programs. One group of 19 subjects performed a circuit-training regimen consisting of treadmill walking, stationary bicycle riding, rowing, and calisthenics. Exercise sessions lasted 60 minutes and were performed every third day during an 18-week training period. A second group of 19 subjects participated in an 18-week jogging regimen which consisted of running distances of 1/2, 1, or 1 1/2 miles each session. The exercise requirements in both programs were increased progressively during the course of training. Subjects adapted quickly to both exercise regimens and almost all improved their physical endurance and ability to exercise. It is suggested that the highly motivating characteristics of exercise may provide educators with a training medium through which new skills can be taught to severely and profoundly mentally retarded adults.