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Rafael Gnat, Agata Dziewońska, Maciej Biały and Martyna Wieczorek

 al., 2011 ; Hides, Stanton, McMahon, Sims, & Richardson, 2008 ), and this is in line with the initial subjective experiences of our participants. However, this potential influence was eliminated because, after the preexperimental training period, both IA and GA became equally familiar to the subjects

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Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M. Bruijn, Ingrid G. van de Port, Ilona J.M. de Rooij, Harriet Wittink and Jaap H. van Dieën

was perturbed. For a visual demonstration of the intervention, see the electronic Supplementary Material (available online). Primary Outcomes Gait Stability Before and after the training period, gait stability was assessed by determining steady-state gait characteristics and daily-life gait

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Paige E. Rice, Herman van Werkhoven, Edward K. Merritt and Jeffrey M. McBride

, Aoki MS . Effects of resistance training periodization on performance and salivary immune-endocrine responses of elite female basketball players . J Sports Med Phys Fitness . 2011 ; 51 ( 4 ): 676 – 682 . PubMed ID: 22212272 22212272 34. Simpson KJ , Pettit M . Jump distance of dance

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Amanda Faith Casey and Claudia Emes

Reduced respiratory muscle strength in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) may affect speech respiratory variables such as maximum phonation duration (MPD), initiation volume, and expired mean airflow. Researchers randomly assigned adolescents with DS (N = 28) to either 12 weeks of swim training (DS-ST) or a control group (DS-NT). Repeated measures MANOVA demonstrated a significant increase in MPD for DS-ST participants from pretest to posttest, t(11) = –3.44, p = 0.006, that was not maintained at follow-up, t(11) = 6.680, p < .001. No significant change was observed for DS-NT participants across time, F(2, 11) = 4.20, p = 0.044. The lack of long-term change in DS-ST participants may be related to the relatively short training period.

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Gordon E. Marchiori, Albert E. Wall and E. Wendy Bedingfield

This study investigated the learning of the stationary hockey slap shot by two physically awkward boys; for comparison purposes, two age-matched boys performed the same skill. In an initial data collection session, the physically awkward and the control boys performed three successful slap shots. Following this, the physically awkward subjects practiced 400 trials at home every 2 weeks over a 6-week training period, under the supervision of their parents. Performance data were collected every 2 weeks, after 400, 800, and 1,200 practice trials. Cinematographic analysis of each subject’s three successful responses led to an examination of the kinematics, phasing, and timing of the slap shot. In the initial baseline session, the control subjects exhibited consistency of performance; however, even after 1,200 trials of supervised practice the performance of the two physically awkward children was extremely variable.

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Phillip D. Tomporowski and Larry D. Jameson

Institutionalized severely and profoundly mentally retarded adults participated in two exercise programs. One group of 19 subjects performed a circuit-training regimen consisting of treadmill walking, stationary bicycle riding, rowing, and calisthenics. Exercise sessions lasted 60 minutes and were performed every third day during an 18-week training period. A second group of 19 subjects participated in an 18-week jogging regimen which consisted of running distances of 1/2, 1, or 1 1/2 miles each session. The exercise requirements in both programs were increased progressively during the course of training. Subjects adapted quickly to both exercise regimens and almost all improved their physical endurance and ability to exercise. It is suggested that the highly motivating characteristics of exercise may provide educators with a training medium through which new skills can be taught to severely and profoundly mentally retarded adults.

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Nathan Waite, John Goetschius and Jakob D. Lauver

It is estimated that between 27% and 70% of all runners sustain a lower-extremity overuse injury during any 1-year training period, 1 – 3 with fatigue fractures of the tibia occurring commonly in runners. 4 One factor that contributes to overuse injuries is the repeated impact forces experienced

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Jana L. Fogaca, Jack C. Watson II and Sam J. Zizzi

psychologists that has many similarities to the IDM, but proposes development along a linear path. This model does not propose the interaction that Stoltenberg and McNeil ( 2009 ) did, but instead focuses on showing different aspects of development within each phase. The phases are: 1) lay helper (pre-training

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Stijn Schouppe, Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Jan R. Wiersema, Stefaan Van Damme, Tine Willems and Lieven Danneels

dominant in this case. However, if the word “red” appeared in a black font, they had to push the black key letter, as, in this case, the font color was dominant. Before the task started, the participants were given a short training period until they fully understood the task. Primary Outcome Measures