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Anne-Marie Heugas and Isabelle A. Siegler

Walking is the preferred terrestrial gait pattern used by humans at locomotion speeds not exceeding approximately 7.2 km/hr. This is the speed at which humans usually switch to running and is referred to as the “preferred transition speed” (PTS; Thorstensson & Roberthson, 1987 ). Gait selection

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Albert J. Petitpas

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

, 2018 ). Career transitions to contemporary circus are thus common amongst athletes, and gymnasts in particular. However, little is known about the lived experiences of circus artists, as few systematic studies have considered this performance domain ( Ross & Shapiro, 2017 ). Given that practitioners in

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Bobbi-Jo Atchison and Donna L. Goodwin

school, families seek inclusive 1 community physical activity opportunities ( Mulligan, Hale, Whitehead, & Baxter, 2012 ; Rimmer, 2005 ; Rimmer & Rowland, 2008 ; Roth, Pyfer, & Huettig, 2007 ). With limited resources available in the community, parents are key to ensuring transitions to community

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Brendan Smith, Stephanie Hanrahan, Ruth Anderson and Lyndel Abbott

Leaving home or transitioning to another environment is a part of every individual’s personal growth and is often considered to be a significant developmental milestone. The distress that individuals experience with this transition has been identified as homesickness. Elite sporting institutions, such as the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS), have recognized that problems associated with homesickness appear to be a predominant cause of poor well-being and dropout among athletes living in a national sports institute. This study aimed to investigate if individual personality traits and coping styles could predict levels of homesickness in these athletes. Neuroticism, self-esteem, and mental escape were significant predictors of homesickness. These results suggest that athletes who are vulnerable to homesickness can be identified before the commencement of their sporting scholarships so they can be treated accordingly.

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Veerle Segers, Peter Aerts, Matthieu Lenoir and Dirk De Clercq

The purpose of this study was to examine the kinetics of the walk-to-run transition (WRT) and run-to-walk transition (RWT), when accelerating or decelerating across transition speed (a = 0.17 m·s−2). Nine women performed gait transitions on a 50-m-long walkway. Vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) and the center of pressure (COP) were examined in the range from 3 steps before to 3 steps after transition in order to identify the possible occurrence of a transition process, in order to facilitate the actual realization of transition. The actual transition is realized in one step, during WRT and RWT. This transition step was characterized by an outlying vertical GRF and COP trajectory (deviating from walking and running). Despite this clear discontinuity, a transitional adaptation period (process) appeared in both transitions. In the WRT, transition was prepared and kinetic adaptations were found in the last step before transition. The RWT was pre- and “post”-pared and only completed during the first walking step after transition. Thus, the WRT and RWT are two distinct phenomena, with different kinetics.

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Jinger S. Gottschall, Dmitri Y. Okorokov, Noriaki Okita and Keith A. Stern

Healthy young adults transition between level and hill surfaces of various angles while walking at fluctuating speeds. These surface transitions have the potential to decrease dynamic balance in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Hence, the purpose of the current study was to analyze modifications in temporal-spatial parameters during hill walking transitions. We hypothesized that in comparison with level walking, the transition strides would indicate the adoption of a distinct gait strategy with a greater base of support. Thirty-four participants completed level and hill trials on a walkway with a 15-degree portable ramp apparatus. We collected data during 4 transition strides between level and ramp surfaces. In support of our hypothesis, compared with level walking, the base of support was 20% greater during 3 out of the 4 transition strides. In short, our results illustrate that healthy young adults did adopt a distinct gait strategy different from both level and hill walking during transitions strides.

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Riley C. Sheehan and Jinger S. Gottschall

In a previous study, we found that participants modified how they transitioned onto and off of ramp configurations depending upon the incline. While the transition strategies were originally attributed to ramp angles, it is possible that the plateau influenced the strategies since the final surface height also differed. Ultimately, for the current study, we hypothesized that an individual’s transition strategies would have significant main effects for ramp angle, but not plateau height. Twelve healthy, young adults transitioned onto 3 distinct ramp configurations, a 2.4-m ramp angled at 12.5° ending at a plateau height of 53 cm, a 1.2-m ramp angled at 23.5° ending at a plateau height of 53 cm, and a 2.4-m ramp angled at 23.5° ending at a plateau height of 99.5 cm. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity were measured during the stance phase before contacting the ramp. In support of our hypothesis, impact peak, active peak, and all of the muscle activity variables had a significant main effect for ramp angle, with greater vertical force peaks and muscle activity on steeper ramp transitions. These findings support our previous interpretation that individuals use estimations of ramp angle, not plateau height, to determine their transition strategies.

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Li Li

Variability has long been used as an indication of stability in the application of a dynamical systems approach to human motion (i.e., greater variability has been related to a less stable system and vise versa). This paper incorporates the probability of gait transition during walking and running at a certain speed to represent the stability of human locomotion. The mathematical representation concerning the probability of gait transition change with locomotory speed was derived for increasing walking speed and decreasing running speed. Additionally, the influence of acceleration and deceleration on the stability landscapes of walking and running was discussed based on experimental data. The influence of acceleration was also used to explain the different trends of hysteresis observed by various researchers. Walk-to-run transition speed was greater than run-to-walk transition speed, with a greater magnitude of acceleration, while the trend was reversed with a lesser acceleration magnitude. The quantitative measure of the relationship between variability and stability needs to be explored in the future.

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Michael F. Joseph, Katherine Histen, Julia Arntsen, Lauren L’Hereux, Carmine Defeo, Derek Lockwood, Todd Scheer and Craig R. Denegar


Achilles tendons (ATs) adapt to increased loading generated by long-term adoption of a minimalist shoe running style. There may be difference in the chronology and extent of adaptation between the sexes.


To learn the chronology of AT adaptations in female and male runners who transitioned to a minimalist running style through a planned, progressive 12-wk transition program.


Prospective cohort study of well-trained, traditionally shod runners who transitioned to minimalist shoe running.


Repeated laboratory assessment at baseline and 3, 12, and 24 wk after initiating transition program.


Fifteen women and 7 men (of 29 enrolled) completed the study.

Main Outcome Measures:

The authors used diagnostic ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry to generate a force elongation curve and its derivatives at each time point.


Greater adaptations were observed in men than in women, with men generating more force and having greater increases in CSA, stiffness, and Young’s modulus and less elongation after 12 wk of training.


Men demonstrated changes in AT properties that were consistent with increased loading of the triceps surae during exercise. The women demonstrated far smaller changes. Further investigation is warranted to understand when adaptations may occur in women and the implications of altered AT mechanical properties for performance and injury risk.