Track cycling team pursuit is an Olympic discipline held on velodromes. It is characterized by 4 cyclists completing 4000 m from a standing start as fast as possible. Repeated transitions (using the banks of the velodrome to keep momentum) allow riders to share time in the lead position (exposed to
Samuel Sigrist, Thomas Maier and Raphael Faiss
Bobbi-Jo Atchison and Donna L. Goodwin
school, families seek inclusive 1 community physical activity opportunities ( Mulligan, Hale, Whitehead, & Baxter, 2012 ; Rimmer, 2005 ; Rimmer & Rowland, 2008 ; Roth, Pyfer, & Huettig, 2007 ). With limited resources available in the community, parents are key to ensuring transitions to community
Olivier Galy, Olivier Hue, Karim Chamari, Alain Boussana, Anis Chaouachi and Christian Préfaut
To study the relationship between performance and exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH), 5 internationally ranked (INT) and 8 regionally ranked (REG) triathletes performed cycle-run successions (CR) and control runs (R) in competitionlike conditions: at ≍75% VO2max.
Ventilatory parameters and oxyhemoglo-bin saturation (SpO2) data were collected continuously. Arteriolized partial pressure in O2 (PaO2) and alveolar ventilation (VA) were measured before and after cycling (CRcycle), the successive run (CRrun), and R. Pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLco) was measured at rest and 10 minutes post-CR. Training and short-distance triathlon data were collected.
INT showed signifcantly greater experience than REG in competition years (P > .05), training regimen (P > .05), and swimming (P > .05), and cycling (P > .05) volumes; running showed a trend (P < .06). Cycling, running, and total triathlon performances were significantly higher in INT than REG (P > .01). SpO2 during CR dropped significantly more in INT than in REG. Both groups showed significant inverse correlations between the magnitude of the SpO2 change from CRcy-cle to CRrun and the triathlon running time (r = −0.784; P < .05 and r = −0.699; P < .05; respectively). When compared with CRcycle, PaO2 significantly decreased and VA significantly increased after CRrun and R in both groups (P < .01). DLco significantly dropped between pre- and postexercise in CR and R with no between-group difference (P < .05).
EIAH was aggravated in higher performers during simulated cycle-run segments, related to longer experience and heavier training regimens. Possibly, relative hypoventilation caused this aggravated EIAH in INT, although pulmonary diffusion limitation was observed in both groups. Beyond EIAH severity, the magnitude of SpO2 variations during the cycle-run transition may affect triathlon running performance.
Dana A. Sinclair and Terry Orlick
The purpose of this study was to explore the transition experiences of high-performance athletes. More specifically, this study investigated reasons for retirement from sport, individual coping strategies, support networks used by transitional athletes, and other variables that may have impacted on the athlete’s adjustment process. Retired high-performance athletes (N = 199) with international competitive experience completed the Athlete Retirement Questionnaire, a 34-item instrument developed for this study. Analysis showed that those athletes who adjusted smoothly tended to retire after they achieved their sport related goals or because they had achieved their goals in sport. In addition, athletes who had a more difficult transition tended to feel incompetent outside of sport and to also feel that keeping busy was not an effective coping strategy. Practical implications are presented.
Patrick H.F. Baillie and Steven J. Danish
Transition out of a career in sports has been suggested as being a difficult and disruptive process for many athletes. An early and enduring identification, familiarity, and preference for the role of athlete may cause its loss to be a significant stressor for the elite, Olympic, or professional athlete. The purpose of this paper is to describe the various aspects of the career transition process in sports, beginning with early identification with the role of athlete and continuing through retirement from active participation in competitive sports. Athletes are often poorly prepared for the off-time event of leaving sports, and traditional theories of retirement may not be suitable. People associated with athletes (coaches, peers, management, family members, and sport psychologists) and athletes themselves need to be aware of the potential for difficulty during their career transition.
Tom Mitchell, Adam Gledhill, Mark Nesti, Dave Richardson and Martin Littlewood
In English professional soccer, around 90% of youth players embarking on a professional career fail to achieve this status ( Anderson & Miller, 2011 ). Fundamentally, concerns in England centre on the small number of young players successfully making the youth-to-senior team transition. Talent
Siobhain McArdle, Phil Moore and Deirdre Lyons
Career pathways in high performance sport include a number of emotionally resonant transitions. Sport systems must be able to effectively support the athlete’s endeavors to negotiate such challenges. This study investigated qualitatively the experiences of Olympic athletes who took part in a three-tier, post-games career transition support program. The aim of the program was to increase athletes’ coping resources to successful negotiate the post-Olympic period. Ten athletes who participated in the program were recruited to participate in semi structured individual interviews. Directed content analysis was employed to identify key themes in the data. Athletes perceived two components of the program as particularly helpful, the normalization of the emotional and psychological challenge of the post Games period and the use of problem focused coping to redirect athlete focus to the future. The findings from this study provide a preliminary framework for the planning of future post-Games career transition support programs.
Deborah L. Krueger, Patrick DiRocco and Manny Felix
The purpose was to ascertain what obstacles adapted physical education (APE) specialists in Wisconsin had encountered while developing physical activity leisure transition plans (LTP) in accordance with the PL 105-17 mandate on transition services. Also addressed were the reasons why some APE specialists had not written LTPs or been involved in transition planning. Participants included 155 APE specialists representing 91 school districts in Wisconsin who returned a mailed questionnaire (i.e., a 75% return rate). Results indicated that only 21% (n = 33) of the APE specialists had written a LTP. Sixty-four percent (n = 78) of the specialists who reported not having written a LTP said that they had never been asked to be part of transition planning. APE specialists who had written LTPs indicated that transportation, social isolation, and budget restrictions were the greatest barriers.
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life development intervention on career transition adjustment in retired professional athletes. Intervention (n = 32) and control groups (n = 39) were recruited for this study, both of which contained recently retired male professional soccer players. Data were collected on measures of career termination adjustment and coping with transitions, and the intervention group also participated in a life development intervention package. Results revealed significant postintervention treatment group differences on career transition adjustment in favor of the life development intervention, while significant within-group differences on career transition adjustment over time were also achieved for the intervention group. Results are discussed in relation to the personal and developmental costs of pursuing performance excellence.
Kathy B. Parker
The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of former college football players upon exiting intercollegiate careers. The qualitative methodology of in-depth, dialogic interviewing was employed. Participants were 7 former NCAA Division I-A collegiate football players who completed their eligibility within the last 3 years and who were at least 8 months removed from collegiate competition. These participants were not under contract with any professional teams at the time of their interviews. Findings centered around the following themes: (a) the transition from high school to elite-level college football, and the change in the relationships participants had with their coaches; (b) the learning of behavior not positively transferable to the “real world”; (c) the power and control issues surrounding the major college football setting, and the manner in which participants perceived, and responded to, being controlled; and (d) the ways participants were experiencing posteligibility life.