Transition out of professional sport into retirement has been a topic of considerable research in recent years ( Alfermann, Stambulova, & Zemaityte, 2004 ; Torregrosa, Ramis, Pallarés, Azócar, & Selva, 2015 ). It is a given that throughout our lives we transition from one phase or stage to the
Sophie Knights, Emma Sherry, Mandy Ruddock-Hudson and Paul O’Halloran
Brian Goff, Dennis P. Wilson, W. Currie Martin and Brandon Spurlock
Our study examines the impact of the transition from NCAA Football Championship Series (FCS) participation to Football Bowl Series (FBS) participation on demand for university football. The primary empirical analysis uses 23 schools that transitioned to the FBS between 1987 and 2013 to examine attendance effects. We first examine the change as a type of event study and estimate the impact in a short run “transition window” of the 5 years leading up to and after the transition. We then estimate the long run impact of membership on annual attendance over a period extending from 5 years before transition through 2013 for all transition schools. Finally, we estimate impact on an alternative sample that includes a control group of top performing FCS schools that have not transitioned to FBS. The results derived from these panel regressions indicate a substantial positive impact on per game attendance over the transition period and for many years beyond the transition. (JEL codes: L83, L29.)
John C. Barnes
It is important for sports administration programs to prepare students for career entry and transition into productive roles within their new jobs upon graduation. However, even the best academic curricula for those entering a profession may be inadequate for preparing students for early success in their careers. Not only do academic curricula lack the ability to train students for problem solving and independent thinking, they lack the ability to provide context, reducing transfer of knowledge to practice. The purpose of this article is to provide instructors in sports administration programs background information related to the transition graduates may face when entering the job market. The underlying assumption is that if instructors better understand the process of job entry and transition, they can better prepare students to embark on their careers. Included are discussions of professional preparation programs, the expectation gap held by new employees, job role transition, and organizational socialization.
Sport management was acknowledged early in its formative years as an academic area with great potential for success in the academy. Due largely to the efforts of members of the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM), sport management quickly became entrenched in academe and is starting to be recognized as an academic area of merit. It is important to manage our overall program excellence as we move from “potential” to “merit” if sport management is to thrive as an academic discipline and profession. It is particularly important to mange our merit since our transition phase occurs amidst many changes and challenges (e.g., the student as consumer; under-representation of National Association for Sport and Physical Education/NASSM Approved Programs; under-recognition of sport management teaching excellence, and diminishing service roles and interests within industry and academe). The purpose of this essay is to posit approaches through which sport management’s educational programs might maintain their well-earned meritorious reputations amid shifting academic and social cultures. This essay is the text of the 2003 Dr. Earle F. Zeigler Lecture presented on May 30 at the 18th Annual Meeting of NASSM in Ithaca, New York.
Kalliopi Sotiriadou, David Shilbury and Shayne Quick
The purpose of this study was to explore and map the sport development processes in Australia. A grounded theory approach identified sport development processes by examining 74 annual reports from 35 national sporting organizations (NSOs) over a period of 4 years, before and after the Sydney Olympic Games. The 3 frameworks presented in this article representing the attraction, retention/transition, and nurturing process illustrate the generic processes and strategies described by NSOs. The results show that each sport development process requires human and financial input from various stakeholders. These stakeholders initiate or implement sport development strategies for each process and each process has different sport development outputs. These results contribute to the extant literature of sport development by demonstrating that sport development is more complex and encompassing than previously described. It is proposed that the generic frameworks derived from this study be subject to more specific testing using other sport systems, as context and case studies could lead to tailoring the frameworks to represent specific sport development processes and systems.
B. Christine Green
Sport development has become a leading issue for sport policymakers and sport managers worldwide. Sport development systems have two main objectives: to increase the number of participants actively engaged in sport and to enhance the quality of performances in sport. This is the foundation of the much used, but rarely examined, pyramid analogy in sport development. In this article, the pyramid model of sport development is explored, and its underlying assumptions are critiqued. Three tasks necessary for an effective pyramid model are identified: athlete recruitment, athlete retention, and athlete transitions. Recruitment requires the assistance of significant others, as well as the proliferation of many smaller, local-level sport programs. Retention requires a focus on motivation, socialization, and commitment. Advancement requires that programs be linked vertically and that athletes be aided in processes of locating and socializing into new levels of involvement. Although specific strategies for enhancing recruitment, retention, and transition of athletes can be identified from the literature, further research is needed.
Darren D. Kelly and Marlene A. Dixon
Despite excellent performance on the field and years of academic and social attention, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I African American male student-athletes continue to struggle to have an optimal and well-rounded college experience at predominantly White institutions of higher education. In particular, the first 2 years of college represent a difficult period during which this group would benefit from new ideas to support their multiple transitions. Mentoring, and more specifically constellation mentoring, provides great promise for aiding in the transition and success of this group (Kram, 1985). Mentoring, like other organizational transition management tools, focuses on helping people navigate a transition into a new setting (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, & Wright, 2010). However, constellation mentoring can be simultaneously broad (in terms of range of needs addressed) and specifically tailored to individual needs. This study seeks to establish a framework for how mentoring may provide a valuable tool for addressing the needs of African American male student-athletes as they transition into the college sport, social, and academic atmosphere.
Janet B. Parks and Michael E. Bartley
Scholarship expectations of many universities in the United States are becoming more stringent. The purpose of this study was to examine variables associated with the scholarship of the sport management professoriate. The participants were 266 of the 422 academics in the NASPE-NASSM Sport Management Program List (1991). Chi-square tests of independence (alpha < .004) revealed slight tendencies for (a) younger faculty to have doctorates in areas such as sport management, psychology/sociology of sport, and legal aspects of sport rather than in physical education; (b) younger faculty to have more publications than older faculty; (c) women to be concentrated in the lower ranks and salary ranges; and (d) movement toward gender parity in rank and salary. This study should be replicated in 5 years to discover if these tendencies were precursors of trends.