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Michael J. O’Connor

Student display of regular physical activity has been presented as a principal component of the definition of a physically educated student (National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 1991). What strategies can a physical educator employ to facilitate the adoption and maintenance of physical activity? The transtheoretical model offers an explanation of the structure of change that occurs when adults attempt to change behavior. Although the model was derived from the modification of addictive and problem behaviors, the transtheoretical model shows promise for providing a theoretical foundation for the acquisition of positive behaviors such as physical activity. This paper explains the basic constructs of the transtheoretical model and discusses application of strategies that a physical educator in postsecondary and community settings may employ to facilitate the adoption and maintenance of physical activity.

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Thad R. Leffingwell, Steven P. Rider and Jean M. Williams

In an effort to apply the transtheoretical model of change to the area of psychological skills training, questionnaires measuring stage of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy were developed and cross-validated on two samples of NCAA Division I intercollegiate student-athletes. The measures showed good internal reliability and construct validity and exhibited hypothesized functional relationships with each other. In addition, the stage of change measure predicted sport psychology consultations initialed by athletes during the year following questionnaire administration and may prove to be a useful tool in predicting subsequent initiation of individual sport psychology consultation. Several potentially useful lines of research are discussed and recommendations are made regarding the development of sport psychology interventions tailored according to athletes’ stage of change.

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Stefania Korologou, Vassilis Barkoukis, Lambros Lazuras and Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis

The current study used the transtheoretical model (TTM) as a guiding theoretical framework to assess differences in processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy among deaf individuals with different levels of physical activity. Overall, 146 participants (M age = 26.4 yr, SD = 4.28) completed anonymous questionnaires assessing the dimensions of the TTM, stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy. Analysis of variance showed that both experiential and behavioral processes of change were higher in the preparation, action, and maintenance stages than in the other stages. Accordingly, the benefits of physical activity participation were stronger in the preparation stage, whereas the costs were more evident in the precontemplation stage. Finally, self-efficacy at the preparation stage was higher than in the other stages. The findings revealed how different stages of physical activity participation can be explained through the TTM, and the implications for physical activity intervention are discussed.

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Stacy L. Gnacinski, William V. Massey, Courtney W. Hess, Mellanie M. Nai, Monna Arvinen-Barrow and Barbara B. Meyer

To enhance the specificity of psychological skills training (PST) interventions, the purpose of the current study was to examine stage of change and gender differences in the combination of transtheoretical model (TTM) constructs (i.e., decisional balance pros and cons, self-efficacy, cognitive and behavioral processes of change) among collegiate student-athletes. Participants (N = 602) completed all TTM measures, and a factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of stage of change and gender on the combination of TTM constructs. No significant interaction effect was identified, yet significant main effects of stage of change and gender were identified. Post hoc tests revealed unique linear combinations of decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change for each stage of change contrast. Taken together, study findings may be used to enhance the specificity of behavior change interventions when delivering PST programs to both male and female collegiate student-athletes.

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Gregg Bennett

The purpose of this study was to describe the participation styles of students enrolled in two basic instruction weight training classes. The students’ participation styles fell somewhere on a continuum between slackin’ and sweatin’. Through the use of class observations and interviews with the students and the instructors, six styles of participation were identified within both of these categories. Four participation styles were revealed in the slackin’ category. These were (a) socializers, (b) manipulators, (c) underachievers, and (d) minimalists. The two styles identified in the sweatin’ category were (a) sidekicks and (b) ex-athletes. The transtheoretical model for behavior modification was used to describe the students’ activity levels in the classes and predict exercise adherence among the twelve participants. Further in-depth studies are needed to assess the state of basic instruction program classes within individual programs and classes throughout the nation.

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Colleen M. Horn, Jenelle N. Gilbert, Wade Gilbert and Dawn K. Lewis

The present study examined a 10-week psychological skills training (PST) intervention called UNIFORM (Johnson & Gilbert, 2004) with a community college softball team. The intervention was based on the transtheoretical model (Prochaska & Marcus, 1994). Results showed that the athletes learned the skills, enjoyed the intervention, and significantly increased their application of relaxation and goal setting during practice and their application of relaxation, imagery, and self-talk during competition as measured by the Test of Performance Strategies (Thomas, Murphy, & Hardy, 1999). Though there were some positive changes, decisional balance and self-efficacy scores (DB-PST, SE-PST; Leffingwell, Rider, & Williams, 2001) were not statistically significant. The UNIFORM approach enabled community college athletes to learn psychological skills and apply them during practice, competition, and in their everyday lives.

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Emma C. Neupert, Stewart T. Cotterill and Simon A. Jobson

, Velicer WF . The transtheoretical model of health behavior change . Am J Health Promot . 1997 ; 12 ( 1 ): 38 – 48 . doi:10.4278/0890-1171-12.138 10170434 10.4278/0890-1171-12.1.38 14. Michie S , van Stralen MM , West R . The behaviour change wheel: a new method for characterising and

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Robert Weinberg

program after years of sedentary behavior can be a difficult task. In addition, the stage where there is the highest risk of relapse according to the Transtheoretical Model ( Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992 ) is called the action phase, which is when individuals start to exercise regularly but

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

to understand the ingredients and sources used in supplement formulations. In addition, the environmental component encompasses the desire/ability to change and barriers to change ( Boosalis, 2010 ), which may be assessed most readily using the transtheoretical model of health behavior change (Table

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Maria Kosma, Rebecca Ellis Gardner, Bradley J. Cardinal, Jeremy J. Bauer and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

A high proportion of individuals with disabilities remain physically inactive. Therefore, this study (web-based survey) investigated the relationships between the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and physical activity among 224 adults with physical disabilities (M age = 45.4 years, SD = 10.78, females = 71%). Additionally, the most important TTM predictors of the stages of change and physical activity were examined. Standardized self-report scales of the TTM constructs and physical activity were completed. The study findings supported the theorized relationships between the TTM constructs and physical activity. The behavioral and cognitive processes of change distinguished the stages of change. These two constructs and self-efficacy mostly predicted physical activity (R 2 total = .18). The assessment methodology of the TTM constructs needs to be revisited.