Components of the transtheoretical model of change were examined in a prospective study of the adoption of vigorous exercise in adults. Respondents to a random mail survey were resurveyed 2 years later. Those who reported no vigorous exercise at baseline were classified as either contemplators (n = 213) or precontemplators (n = 188). Contemplators had higher baseline self-efficacy scores than precontemplators (p < .001). In multivariate analyses, baseline stage of change was a significant predictor (p < .0005) of later adoption of vigorous exercise, even after controlling for differences in age, gender, and self-efficacy. During the first 6 months postbaseline, contemplators were nearly twice as likely as precontemplators to progress to the stage of action (46% vs. 24%), and four times more likely to progress to the stage of maintenance (25% vs. 6%). Use of the transtheoretical model in the study of exercise was supported in this prospective examination of exercise in a community sample.
Colin A. Armstrong, James F. Sallis, Melbourne F. Hovell and C. Richard Hofstetter
Ralph Maddison and Harry Prapavessis
The purpose of this study was to examine whether variables in the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) acted more as predictors than as consequences of exercise behavior (stage of change). Students from 13 New Zealand high schools (N = 1,434) completed questionnaires corresponding to variables in the TTM (i.e., stage of exercise change, processes of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance) at two time periods separated by 6 months. Reciprocal relationships were found between exercise behavior and the TTM variables. The TTM might be a useful framework for understanding longitudinal exercise behavior in the adolescent population.
Corjena Cheung, Jean Wyman, Cynthia Gross, Jennifer Peters, Mary Findorff and Holly Stock
The transtheoretical model (TTM) was developed as a guide for understanding behavior change. Little attention has been given, however, to the appropriateness of the TTM for explaining the adoption of exercise behavior in older adults. The purposes of this study were to determine the reliability of the TTM instruments and validate TTM predictions in 86 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 75.1 ± 7.0 years, 87% women) who were participants in a 16-week walking program. TTM construct scales—self-efficacy, decisional balance (pros and cons), and processes of change (behavioral and cognitive)—were generally reliable (all α > .78). Behavioral processes of change increased from baseline to follow-up, but pros, cons, and cognitive processes did not change among participants who became regular exercisers. Stage of change did not predict exercise adoption, but baseline self-efficacy predicted walking behavior. These results lend partial support to the TTM in predicting exercise behavior.
Trish Gorely and Sandy Gordon
This study examined the structure of the transtheoretical model (TM) in exercise behavior change among adults age 50–65 years (n = 583). The purpose was to examine the relationship between stage of change and the constructs of processes of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance. The results showed that 5 of the 10 processes of change, self-efficacy, and both pros and cons make significant and unique contributions to discrimination between the stages. Specifically, the use of the processes of change was shown to fluctuate across the stages, self-efficacy was shown to increase from precontemplation to maintenance, and the balance between pros and cons was shown to change from precontemplation to maintenance. The similarity of these results to previous literature suggests that the process of behavior change hypothesized within the TM holds across different age groups and cultures. Several implications for intervention design and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Zachary C. Pope, Beth A. Lewis and Zan Gao
The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) has been widely used to understand individuals’ physical activity (PA) correlates and behavior. However, the theory’s application among children in exergaming remains unknown.
Investigate the effects of an exergaming program on children’s TTM-based PA correlates and PA levels.
At pretest and posttest, 212 upper elementary children (mean age = 11.17 years) from the greater Mountain West Region were administered measures regarding stages of change (SOC) for PA behavior, decisional balance for PA behaviors, PA self-efficacy, and self-reported PA levels. Following the pretest, a weekly 30-minute, 18-week Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) program was implemented. Children were classified into 3 SOC groups: progressive children (ie, progressed to a higher SOC stage); stable children (ie, remained at the same SOC stage); and regressive children (ie, regressed to a lower SOC stage).
Progressive children had greater increased PA levels than regressive children (P < .01) from pretest to posttest. Similarly, progressive children had greater increased self-efficacy (P < .05) and decision balance (P < .05) than regressive children.
The findings indicate that progressive children had more improvements on self-efficacy, decisional balance, and PA levels than regressive children over time. Implications of findings are discussed.
Stefania Korologou, Vassilis Barkoukis, Lambros Lazuras and Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis
The current study used the transtheoretical model (TTM) as a guiding theoretical framework to assess differences in processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy among deaf individuals with different levels of physical activity. Overall, 146 participants (M age = 26.4 yr, SD = 4.28) completed anonymous questionnaires assessing the dimensions of the TTM, stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy. Analysis of variance showed that both experiential and behavioral processes of change were higher in the preparation, action, and maintenance stages than in the other stages. Accordingly, the benefits of physical activity participation were stronger in the preparation stage, whereas the costs were more evident in the precontemplation stage. Finally, self-efficacy at the preparation stage was higher than in the other stages. The findings revealed how different stages of physical activity participation can be explained through the TTM, and the implications for physical activity intervention are discussed.
Jessica M. Lipschitz, Miryam Yusufov, Andrea Paiva, Colleen A. Redding, Joseph S. Rossi, Sara Johnson, Bryan Blissmer, N. Simay Gokbayrak, Wayne F. Velicer and James O. Prochaska
Bradley J. Cardinal, Hermann-J. Engels and Weimo Zhu
The Transtheoreticai Model of behavior change was applied to a sample of 669 preadolescents (M age = 8.2) to determine whether stages of exercise could be observed. Associations between stage of exercise classification and demographic, fitness, and cognitive variables were examined. Stage of exercise classifications, on the basis of the Children’s Stage of Exercise Algorithm, were as follows: maintenance (50.8%), action (36.5%), preparation (3.1%), contemplation (4.9%), and precontemplation (4.6%). Stage of exercise was significantly related to gender, age, and grade level. Controlling for these differences, the relationship between exercise beliefs and stage of exercise was significant.
Ashley A. Hansen, Joanne E. Perry, John W. Lace, Zachary C. Merz, Taylor L. Montgomery and Michael J. Ross
. Therefore, consistent with the goal of grounding sport psychology practice in clinical psychology methodology, the current paper provides preliminary support for a new assessment measure that serves as a transtheoretical monitoring instrument for applied sport psychology practice and fills the present gap
Carolyn Rabin, Bernardine M. Pinto and Georita M. Frierson
Physical activity (PA) interventions diminish some of the physical and psychosocial sequelae of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. To increase intervention efficacy and portability, it is necessary to determine the factors mediating intervention effects on physical and psychosocial outcomes. This study presents mediator analyses from a randomized controlled trial of a home-based PA intervention (focused primarily on brisk walking) for breast cancer survivors. Eighty-six survivors were randomized to PA or contact control groups (mean age = 53.42 years, SD = 9.08 and 52.86 years, SD = 10.38 respectively; mean time since diagnosis < 2 years). The PA intervention was based on the transtheoretical model (TTM). Kraemerʼs approach was used to test hypothesized mediators. TTM variables did not mediate intervention effects on PA. Data indicate that increases in moderate-intensity PA and improved fitness may mediate intervention effects on vigor (β = .21; p = .01) and fatigue (β = .24; p = .05) and suggest the value of future research on these potential mediators.