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Danielle Rousseau, Kimberleigh Weiss-Lewit and Mark Lilly

within the #MeToo movement around empowering people who are survivors of sexual trauma, abuse, and/or violence, it is essential to acknowledge that while the #MeToo movement and the progress it has made for survivors of sexual violence feels very much of the moment, we owe the movement to Tarana Burke, a

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André Bateman and Kai A.D. Morgan

inclusive of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. 3 , 4 PTSD is recognized as a trauma- and stressor-related disorder characterized by subjective clinical distress following exposure to catastrophic or aversive events. 5 The major groups of symptoms of PTSD are intrusive memories and

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Mark A. Merrick and Nicole M. McBrier

Context:

Acute musculoskeletal-injury management largely focuses on inhibiting secondary injury, although the data describing secondary injury and the timeline for its progression are sparse.

Objective:

To describe the timeline and early progression of secondary injury in skeletal muscle over the first 5 h after blunt trauma.

Design:

A controlled laboratory study with 2 independent variables (injury status and postinjury time point) in a 2 × 21 factorial.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Subjects:

168 male Sprague Dawley rats (250 to 275 g).

Interventions:

Uniform blunt-contusion injury was caused to the right triceps surae using a drop-weight method; the contralateral limb served as an uninjured control. Both triceps surae were excised and flash frozen at 21 intervals across 5 h postinjury (8 animals, each 15 min).

Main Outcome Measures:

Cytochrome-c oxidase activity via reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to triphenyl-formazan.

Results:

There was an interaction effect (P = .041) between and main effects for both injury status (P < .0005) and postinjury time point (P = .038). In the first 30 min after injury, uninjured tissues did not differ from injured tissues, and both displayed TTC reduction rates in the vicinity of 7.1 ± 0.94 μg · mg−1 · h−1. Statistical differences between uninjured and injured tissues became evident starting at 30 min. TTC reduction for uninjured tissues did not change, but injured tissues declined in a roughly linear fashion across the entire 5-h period to 4.8 ± 1.04 μg · mg−1 · h−1.

Conclusions:

Cytochrome-c oxidase activity, an indicator of oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial viability, is diminished by events that follow muscle trauma. Loss of this enzymatic activity becomes statistically evident at 30 min postinjury and continues linearly for at least 5 h. This suggests that secondary injury is a slowly developing problem of more than 5 h duration. A window of opportunity for intervention may lie somewhere within the first 30 min after injury.

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John H. Abrams

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Andy T. McGown

Column-editor : Tracy Ray

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Ashley S. Long and James R. Scifers

Edited by Patrick McKeon

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Susan G. Capps and Mayberry Brook

Edited by Tricia Hubbard

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Michael C. Dahl, Dheera Ananthakrishnan, Gregg Nicandri, Jens R. Chapman and Randal P. Ching

Football, one of the country’s most popular team sports, is associated with the largest overall number of sports-related, catastrophic, cervical spine injuries in the United States (Mueller, 2007). Patient handling can be hindered by the protective sports equipment worn by the athlete. Improper stabilization of these patients can exacerbate neurologic injury. Because of the lack of consensus on the best method for equipment removal, a study was performed comparing three techniques: full body levitation, upper torso tilt, and log roll. These techniques were performed on an intact and lesioned cervical spine cadaveric model simulating conditions in the emergency department. The levitation technique was found to produce motion in the anterior and right lateral directions. The tilt technique resulted in motions in the posterior left lateral directions, and the log roll technique generated motions in the right lateral direction and had the largest amount of increased instability when comparing the intact and lesioned specimen. These findings suggest that each method of equipment removal displays unique weaknesses that the practitioner should take into account, possibly on a patient-by-patient basis.

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David A. Shearer, Stephen D. Mellalieu and Catherine R. Shearer

While posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is most commonly associated with survivors of traumatic events (e.g., combat), PTSD can occur after any situation in which victims perceive that their life or safety is threatened. In sport, athletes often place themselves in dangerous situations and are also exposed to the same lifestyle dangers as the general population. The literature on PTSD among athletes is sparse, and consequently, it is possible that many (non-clinical) sport psychologists would fail to recognize the symptoms and may subsequently fail to refer the athlete to the appropriate professional for clinical assistance. In the following case study, we present an example of an athlete suffering from PTSD following a serious bicycle accident in which she sustained head and facial injuries. We briefly detail the nature of PTSD and discuss how sport psychology services can be implemented alongside a parallel clinical intervention program. Finally, we offer recommendations for practice when working with athletes with PTSD.

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Theresa L. Miyashita and Paul A. Ullucci

3182582fe7 8. Killam C , Cautin RL , Santucci AC . Assessing the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes who participate in contact sports . Arch Clin Neuropsychol . 2005 ; 20 : 599 – 611 . PubMed ID: 15939185 doi:10.1016/j.acn.2005.02.001 15939185 10