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Danielle Rousseau, Kimberleigh Weiss-Lewit and Mark Lilly

within the #MeToo movement around empowering people who are survivors of sexual trauma, abuse, and/or violence, it is essential to acknowledge that while the #MeToo movement and the progress it has made for survivors of sexual violence feels very much of the moment, we owe the movement to Tarana Burke, a

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Jason P. Shurley and Janice S. Todd

In recent years there has been a significant increase in the scrutiny of head trauma in football. This attention is due largely to a host of studies that have been highly publicized and linked the repetitive head trauma in football to late-life neurological impairment. Scientists and physicians familiar with boxing have been aware of such impairment, resulting from repeated head impacts, for more than 80 years. Few, however, made the connection between the similarity of head impacts in boxing and football until recent decades. This article examines the medical and scientific literature related to head trauma in both boxing and football, paying particular attention to the different emphases of that research. Further, the literature is used to trace the understanding of sport-related chronic head trauma as well as how that understanding has prompted reform efforts in each sport. Finally, in light of the current understanding of the long-term sequelae of repetitive head trauma, some consideration is given to what football administrators can learn from the reform efforts in boxing.

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Bianca Miarka, Fábio Dal Bello, Ciro J. Brito, Fabrício B. Del Vecchio, John Amtmann and Karim Chamari

terms of injury severity patterns, a consecutive case series using data from postbout medical examinations suggested that KOs and TKOs in boxing and MMA appear to be associated with a longer time of postbout medical suspensions and brain trauma reports. 16 The athletes are kicking/striking each other

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Michael C. Dahl, Dheera Ananthakrishnan, Gregg Nicandri, Jens R. Chapman and Randal P. Ching

Football, one of the country’s most popular team sports, is associated with the largest overall number of sports-related, catastrophic, cervical spine injuries in the United States (Mueller, 2007). Patient handling can be hindered by the protective sports equipment worn by the athlete. Improper stabilization of these patients can exacerbate neurologic injury. Because of the lack of consensus on the best method for equipment removal, a study was performed comparing three techniques: full body levitation, upper torso tilt, and log roll. These techniques were performed on an intact and lesioned cervical spine cadaveric model simulating conditions in the emergency department. The levitation technique was found to produce motion in the anterior and right lateral directions. The tilt technique resulted in motions in the posterior left lateral directions, and the log roll technique generated motions in the right lateral direction and had the largest amount of increased instability when comparing the intact and lesioned specimen. These findings suggest that each method of equipment removal displays unique weaknesses that the practitioner should take into account, possibly on a patient-by-patient basis.

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Kevin R. Heinsimer, Nicolas G. Nelson, Kristin J. Roberts and Lara B. McKenzie

Background:

The objective was to describe the patterns and mechanisms of water tubing–related injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments.

Methods:

The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used to examine cases of water tubing–related injuries. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of water tubing–related injuries. Analyses were conducted in 2010.

Results:

From 1991−2009 an estimated 69,471 injuries were treated in US emergency departments for water tubing–related injuries. The annual number of cases increased 250% over the 19-year study period (P < .001). Sprains and strains accounted for the largest portion of injuries (27.2%). The head was the most frequently injured body part (27.5%). Children and adolescents ≤ 19 years were more likely to be injured by contact with another person (OR: 2.47; 95% CI = 1.61−3.80) and were more likely to sustain injuries to the head (OR: 2.61; 95% CI = 2.01−3.38) compared with adults. Adults ≥ 20 years, were more likely than individuals ≤ 19 years to sustain sprains and strains (OR: 2.11; 95% CI = 1.64−2.71) and were most commonly injured by impact with the water (54.6%).

Conclusions:

Patterns of water tubing–related injuries differ for children and adults. Research is needed to determine how best to reduce these injuries.

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David A. Shearer, Stephen D. Mellalieu and Catherine R. Shearer

While posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is most commonly associated with survivors of traumatic events (e.g., combat), PTSD can occur after any situation in which victims perceive that their life or safety is threatened. In sport, athletes often place themselves in dangerous situations and are also exposed to the same lifestyle dangers as the general population. The literature on PTSD among athletes is sparse, and consequently, it is possible that many (non-clinical) sport psychologists would fail to recognize the symptoms and may subsequently fail to refer the athlete to the appropriate professional for clinical assistance. In the following case study, we present an example of an athlete suffering from PTSD following a serious bicycle accident in which she sustained head and facial injuries. We briefly detail the nature of PTSD and discuss how sport psychology services can be implemented alongside a parallel clinical intervention program. Finally, we offer recommendations for practice when working with athletes with PTSD.

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Lydia R. Vollavanh, Kathleen M. O’Day, Elizabeth M. Koehling, James M. May, Katherine M. Breedlove, Evan L. Breedlove, Eric A. Nauman, Debbie A. Bradney, J. Eric Goff and Thomas G. Bowman

prevent head injuries. Describing head impacts is vital to understanding and preventing head trauma in sport. Researchers have examined the biomechanical characteristics of head impacts in soccer, 13 ice hockey, 4 , 14 , 15 and football. 16 – 24 Previous studies found differences in linear and

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Renee Newcomer Appaneal, Frank M. Perna and Kevin T. Larkin

Features of posttraumatic distress have been associated with treatment noncompliance and delayed surgical recovery among general medical and trauma populations. Although cognitive-affective and behavioral features of posttraumatic distress have been demonstrated among adult and adolescent athletes with injuries, physiological responses associated with posttraumatic distress have not yet been examined in this population. The objective of this study was to examine psychophysiological stress reactivity to orthopedic trauma among male athletes who sustained a severe sport injury. Athletes with injuries (n= 7) and non-injured athlete controls (n= 5) completed self-report measures of psychological distress and were then shown injury video footage while heart rate and skin conductance measures were recorded. After exposure to orthopedic trauma-related video footage, athletes with injuries demonstrated significantly greater skin conductance reactivity and subjective distress compared to controls. As demonstrated among other medical and trauma populations, athletes with injuries exhibit exaggerated stress reactivity profiles when primed with orthopedic trauma stimuli.

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Richard P. Wells, Patrick J. Bishop and Malcolm Stephens

Spinal cord trauma due to head-first collisions is not uncommon in vehicle accidents, shallow water diving, football, or ice hockey. Two approaches to evaluating potential protective devices for ice hockey are described: an evaluative tool based upon an anthropometric test dummy, and a computer simulation of axial head-first collisions. Helmets reduced the peak cervical spine loads during low velocity head-first collisions by up to 8%. It is shown that large thicknesses of appropriate padding are necessary to hold the cervical spine loads to noninjurious levels. A head-first impact of 3.0 m • sec−1 required padding deformations on the order of 94 mm to hold cervical spine loads below 2,000 N.

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Gregoire P. Millet, David J. Bentley and Veronica E. Vleck

The relationships between sport sciences and sports are complex and changeable, and it is not clear how they reciprocally influence each other. By looking at the relationship between sport sciences and the “new” (~30-year-old) sport of triathlon, together with changes in scientific fields or topics that have occurred between 1984 and 2006 (278 publications), one observes that the change in the sport itself (eg, distance of the events, wetsuit, and drafting) can influence the specific focus of investigation. The sport-scientific fraternity has successfully used triathlon as a model of prolonged strenuous competition to investigate acute physiological adaptations and trauma, as support for better understanding cross-training effects, and, more recently, as a competitive sport with specific demands and physiological features. This commentary discusses the evolution of the scientific study of triathlon and how the development of the sport has affected the nature of scientific investigation directly related to triathlon and endurance sport in general.