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Amanda Kastrinos, Rachel Damiani and Debbie Treise

, including high uncertainty and risk of a fatal outcome, a review of the coverage revealed that 86.2% of articles published in the United Kingdom had a neutral tone. Articles relied on scientific information rather than personal stories and sensationalized information ( Hilton & Hunt, 2011 ). Parasocial

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Daniel J. Larson and Joel Maxcy

The world governing body for cycling proscribed the use of two-way radio communication in road cycling races, with the ban set to become fully effective in 2012. The ban was instituted because radio use was perceived to have altered the cycling competitions by making outcomes more predictable and of less interest to sport’s consumers. This empirical analysis of the policy rationale considers the uncertainty of outcome hypothesis (UOH) as it applies to professional cycling races and creates a novel measure, the likelihood of breakaway success (LBS). The LBS is analyzed in 1436 bicycle races between 1985–2010 to examine potential changes in outcomes associated with the use of two-way radio technology by competitors and team directors. The data suggests that radio technology has had a significant association with event outcome types. The relevance of the findings to intraorganizational communication, management, and hierarchies of sports teams are also discussed.

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Hojun Sung, Brian M. Mills and Michael Mondello

television demand for the same set of games has been limited, particularly as it relates to Rottenberg’s seminal Uncertainty of Outcome Hypothesis (UOH). Specifically, Rottenberg ( 1956 ) posits that sports fans favor games with greater unpredictability, ultimately implying that preferences for sporting

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Steven Salaga, Scott Tainsky and Michael Mondello

benefitting from the combination of the legally restricted American market and the robust offshore market. We establish that uncertainty in point spread outcomes as well as the local market team’s performance against the spread are economically relevant drivers of local market viewership. We then examine

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Ceyda Mumcu and Kimberly Mahoney

When individuals need to make a decision, they often face alternatives and some uncertainty. Identifying alternatives and anticipating outcomes in a systematic way provides value in better decision-making. Decision trees help to clarify the choices, risks, monetary gains, and other information involved in the decision. As a result, managers can make an informed decision when choosing the alternative that provides the best net gain and whether the net gain is worthwhile to pursue. As such, this case presents a scenario in which the sport marketing manager of the local sports commission is working with the convention center to bring a sporting event to the city in order to enhance the city’s image and generate positive economic impact. The manager is faced with evaluating three alternatives (Event A, Event B, or neither) and making a recommendation to the sports commission and convention center executives regarding which event to pursue, if any. This case provides an opportunity for students to practice using this strategic management tool to assist in systematic decision-making while investigating the event bidding process.

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Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing and Kwame J.A. Agyemang

for organizational success. Harrison, Hitt, Hoskisson, and Ireland ( 2001 ) also argued IR “may be preferred . . . if a high level of uncertainty exists because alliances provide more strategic flexibility and may reduce risk” (p. 684). The coordination of relationships in response to industry

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Velina B. Brackebusch

engage with learners in direct experience and focused reflection to increase knowledge, develop skills, and clarify values” ( Breunig, 2008 , p. 78). Reflexive learning is described as “an educational route of guiding people through the rapid changes, risks, and uncertainties of modernity” ( Emmanuel

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Adam Cohen and Calvin Nite

, failure, adventure, risk-taking and uncertainty, because the outcomes of experience cannot totally be predicted. ( Association for Experiential Education, n.d. ) As stressed by the Association for Experiential Education ( n.d. ), an experiential learning classroom often deals with a great deal of variance

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Jason W. Lee, Ryan K. Zapalac, Elizabeth A. Gregg and Courtney Godfrey

.smr.2013.09.002 10.1016/j.smr.2013.09.002 Hutchinson , M. , Havard , C.T. , Berg , B.K. , & Ryan , T.D. ( 2016 ). Losing the core sport product: Marketing amidst uncertainty in college athletics . Sport Marketing Quarterly, 25 ( 3 ), 185 – 194 . Kats blast Jacks . ( 2018 , October 6

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Robyn Lubisco, Genevieve F.E. Birren and Ryan Vooris

’s Corporation (New York, NY) downgraded the financial outlook for higher education to “negative” due to uncertainty over federal policies ( Fain, 2017 ). Changes in state policy may also negatively impact the job market for sport management faculty. For example, in 2018, Missouri State Representative Rick