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Daniel Balderson and Tom Sharpe

This study examined the effects of personal accountability and personal responsibility instructional treatments on elementary-age, urban, at-risk physical education students. A multiple treatment ABAD, ACAD, ADA, control behavior analysis design was implemented across four distinct matched class settings to determine the separate and combined treatment effects of each instructional treatment on the number of occurrences and percentage of class time for the following: teacher management, student leadership, passive and disruptive student off-task, positive social behavior, and student conflict and conflict resolution behaviors. Study participants included fourth- and fifth-grade students from four elementary classes in an inner-city charter-school setting. Results indicated that both personal accountability and personal responsibility treatments were effective in the primary treatment setting for changing all managerial, off-task, and positive social measures in desirable directions. Recommendations include analysis of the potential long-range and generalized effects of social-skill instruction for underserved children and youth conducted in the context of physical education classes.

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Christine Galvan, Karen Meaney and Virginia Gray

Physical Education , which included 20 service-learning hours. The course provides PETE preservice teachers with experiences in the pedagogy of service-learning, curriculum design, program implementation, assessment, reflection, and evaluation of a physical activity program for underserved children

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Michael A. Hemphill and Tom Martinek

’s ( 2014 ) Project Coach program for at-risk youths in an urban setting used sport experiences to provide leadership opportunities for underserved children. The First Tee golf program ( Petitpas, Cornelius, & Van Raalte, 2008 ) recruited high school and college students to teach sports and life skills to