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Jason D. Vescovi and Greig Watson

exercise, multiple training sessions sometimes occur on a single day (e.g., training camps), and matches are sometimes played on consecutive days (e.g., field hockey tournaments include ∼5 matches in 7–8 days). The prevalence of minimal hypohydration (first morning urine specific gravity [Usg] = 1.010 − 1

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Eric Kyle O’Neal, Samantha Louise Johnson, Brett Alan Davis, Veronika Pribyslavska and Mary Caitlin Stevenson-Wilcoxson

could be beneficial. Urine specific gravity (USG) meets both of these requirements and is cost and time effective. However, it is not considered to be an ideal assessment of hydration status unless used in conjunction with additional measurements (e.g., change from average body mass) and if the samples

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Robert A. Oppliger, Scott A. Magnes, LeRoy A. Popowski and Carl V. Gisolfi

To reduce the adverse consequences of exertion-related and acute intentional dehydration research has focused on monitoring hydration status. This investigation: 1) compared sensitivity of urine specific gravity (Usg), urine osmolality (Uosm) and a criterion measurement of hydration, plasma osmolality (Posm), at progressive stages of acute hypertonic dehydration and 2) using a medical decision model, determined whether Usg or Uosm accurately reflected hydra-tion status compared to Posm among 51 subjects tested throughout the day. Incremental changes in Posm were observed as subjects dehydrated by 5% of body weight and rehydrated while Usg and Uosm showed delayed dehydration-related changes. Using the medical decision model, sensitivity and specificity were not significant at selected cut-offs for Usg and Uosm. At the most accurate cut-off values, 1.015 and 1.020 for Usg and 700 mosm/kg and 800 mosm/kg for Uosm, only 65% of the athletes were correctly classified using Usg and 63% using Uosm. Posm, Usg, and Uosm appear sensitive to incremental changes in acute hypertonic dehydration, however, the misclassified outcomes for Usg and Uosm raise concerns. Research focused on elucidating the factors affecting accurate assessment of hydration status appears warranted.

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Emily C. Borden, William J. Kraemer, Bryant J. Walrod, Emily M. Post, Lydia K. Caldwell, Matthew K. Beeler, William H. DuPont, John Paul Anders, Emily R. Martini, Jeff S. Volek and Carl M. Maresh

NCAA has identified a urine-specific gravity (USG) value of less than or equal to 1.020 g/cm 3 as an indicator of proper hydration. Any value that is greater than 1.020 g/cm 3 is considered “failed,” and the wrestler must be retested no sooner than 24 hours after the initial assessment. USG has been

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Lawrence E. Armstrong, Evan C. Johnson, Amy L. McKenzie, Lindsay A. Ellis and Keith H. Williamson

This field investigation assessed differences (e.g., drinking behavior, hydration status, perceptual ratings) between female and male endurance cyclists who completed a 164-km event in a hot environment (35 °C mean dry bulb) to inform rehydration recommendations for athletes. Three years of data were pooled to create 2 groups of cyclists: women (n = 15) and men (n = 88). Women were significantly smaller (p < .001) than men in height (166 ± 5 vs. 179 ± 7 cm), body mass (64.6 ± 7.3 vs. 86.4 ± 12.3 kg), and body mass index (BMI; 23.3 ± 1.8 vs. 26.9 ± 3.4) and had lower preevent urinary indices of hydration status, but were similar to men in age (43 ± 7 years vs. 44 ± 9 years) and exercise time (7.77 ± 1.24 hr vs. 7.23 ± 1.75 hr). During the 164-km ride, women lost less body mass (−0.7 ± 1.0 vs. −1.7 ± 1.5 kg; −1.1 ± 1.6% vs. −1.9 ± 1.8% of body weight; p < .005) and consumed less fluid than men (4.80 ± 1.28 L vs. 5.59 ± 2.13 L; p < .005). Women consumed a similar volume of fluid as men, relative to body mass (milliliters/kilogram). To control for performance and anthropomorphic characteristics, 15 women were pair-matched with 15 men on the basis of exercise time on the course and BMI; urine-specific gravity, urine color, and body mass change (kilograms and percentage) were different (p < .05) in 4 of 6 comparisons. No gender differences were observed for ratings of thirst, thermal sensation, or perceived exertion. In conclusion, differences in relative fluid volume consumed and hydration indices suggest that professional sports medicine organizations should consider gender and individualized drinking plans when formulating pronouncements regarding rehydration during exercise.

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican and Louise M. Burke

; CON = control group. Figure 2 —Laboratory data collection and physical testing undertaken on Days −1 and 0 (preintervention) and Day 6 (postintervention). USG = urine specific gravity; Na = sodium; K = potassium; Cl = chloride; U = urea; Cr = creatinine; IMTP = isometric midthigh pull; IBP = isometric

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Ben Desbrow, Katelyn Barnes, Gregory R. Cox, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Danielle McCartney, Sierra Skepper, Caroline Young and Chris Irwin

across the remainder of the day or next-morning hydration status (urine specific gravity [U SG ]). Hence, it was concluded that recovery stations served to promote positive lifestyle behaviors in recreational athletes. Food/fluid items within recovery stations are not standardized, and providing

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Giannis Arnaoutis, Panagiotis Verginadis, Adam D. Seal, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Labros S. Sidossis and Stavros A. Kavouras

athletes via urine specific gravity (USG) and urine color and found that more than two-thirds of participants began their workout in a sub-optimal hydration state ( Arnaoutis et al., 2015 ). Stover et al. found similar results when examining American high school football players. In this study, 70% of the

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Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson and Anna Melin

during a training day (Day 1) and a subsequent simulated sprint competition day (Day 2): (a) nutritional intakes, including energy (kcal/kg) and macronutrients (g/kg) and (b) fluid intakes (ml/kg) and hydration status (urine specific gravity [USG]). The prevalence of self-reported conditions relating to

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Julian A. Owen, Matthew B. Fortes, Saeed Ur Rahman, Mahdi Jibani, Neil P. Walsh and Samuel J. Oliver

immediately analyzed for urine color by an 8-point chart ( Armstrong et al., 1994 ), urine specific gravity was measured in duplicate using a handheld refractometer (Atago, Tokyo, Japan), and urine osmolality was measured in triplicate by a freezing point depression osmometer (model 3300; Advanced Instruments