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Tori M. Stone, Jonathan E. Wingo, Brett S. Nickerson and Michael R. Esco

aforementioned studies comparing BMC from DXA and BIA used small samples and correlational analyses, so more definitive conclusions about the efficacy of using BIA to estimate BMC, and the extent of bias between BMC values from DXA and BIA, remain unknown. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to validate

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Chunxiao Li, Lijuan Wang, Martin E. Block, Raymond K.W. Sum and Yandan Wu

-efficacy toward teaching students with ASD, it is important to validate a self-efficacy scale that can be used in China to proliferate the research in terms of including students with ASD. Self-Efficacy Scale for Including ASD The Physical Educators’ Self-Efficacy Toward Including Students with Disabilities

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Jian Wang, Bo Shen, Xiaobin Luo, Qingshan Hu and Alex C. Garn

, we adopted Butler’s theoretical framework ( 2007 ) to validate a teachers’ achievement goal instrument for teaching physical education. Achievement Goals Education researchers assume that individuals’ perceptions, strategies, and outcomes are highly associated with their constructions of the goals or

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Alba Reguant-Closa, Margaret M. Harris, Tim G. Lohman and Nanna L. Meyer

athletes ( Mettler et al., 2009 ). Athletes are a population with specific nutritional requirements to optimize health and performance ( Thomas et al., 2016 ). One of the more relevant studies is the validation of the Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes (FPSA) by Mettler et al. ( 2009 ). The aim of the

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Paul M. Wright, K. Andrew R. Richards, Jennifer M. Jacobs and Michael A. Hemphill

promote these actions in and beyond the classroom” ( 2017 , p. 10). Regarding the instrumentation required to support these lines of research, tools have been developed and validated to assess students’ personal and social responsibility in the physical education setting via self-report ( Li, Wright

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Jacob A. Goldsmith, Cameron Trepeck, Jessica L. Halle, Kristin M. Mendez, Alex Klemp, Daniel M. Cooke, Michael H. Haischer, Ryan K. Byrnes, Robert F. Zoeller, Michael Whitehurst and Michael C. Zourdos

statistical analyses (ie, no agreement statistics). 5 , 6 While the TWAS is reliable for peak velocity 7 and the Tendo Fitrodyne was validated for average velocity with an agreement plot versus a criterion, 2 these devices remain unaffordable for most practitioners. The Open Barbell System (OBS) LPT was

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Dennis K. Landin, Andrew Hawkins and Robert L. Wiegand

This investigation sought to validate a taxonomy of strategies used in formulating the feedback supplied to teacher trainees involved in the peer teaching segment of a secondary methods class. Lesson deficiencies were diagnosed through analysis of student and teacher process behavior data. Certain student and teacher response classes were selected for each trainee as dependent variables (DVs) and targeted for improvement. Goals were set for each DV and strategies for improvement were suggested by teacher educators (TEs). These strategies, selected from a taxonomy developed in previous work (Hawkins, Wiegand, & Landin, 1985), served as independent variables (IVs). A modified changing criterion design was employed to evaluate the data. Strategy effectiveness was determined by analyzing the degree to which trainees met data-based goals for the targeted response classes. Results indicated that several strategies seemed useful for a wide variety of activities. Also indicated by the results is the need for teacher trainers to be better prepared to handle large classes.

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Steffi L. Colyer, Keith A. Stokes, James L.J. Bilzon, Marco Cardinale and Aki I.T. Salo

Purpose:

An extensive battery of physical tests is typically employed to evaluate athletic status and/or development, often resulting in a multitude of output variables. The authors aimed to identify independent physical predictors of elite skeleton start performance to overcome the general problem of practitioners employing multiple tests with little knowledge of their predictive utility.

Methods:

Multiple 2-d testing sessions were undertaken by 13 high-level skeleton athletes across a 24-wk training season and consisted of flexibility, dry-land push-track, sprint, countermovement-jump, and leg-press tests. To reduce the large number of output variables to independent factors, principal-component analysis (PCA) was conducted. The variable most strongly correlated to each component was entered into a stepwise multiple-regression analysis, and K-fold validation assessed model stability.

Results:

PCA revealed 3 components underlying the physical variables: sprint ability, lower-limb power, and strength–power characteristics. Three variables that represented these components (unresisted 15-m sprint time, 0-kg jump height, and leg-press force at peak power, respectively) significantly contributed (P < .01) to the prediction (R 2 = .86, 1.52% standard error of estimate) of start performance (15-m sled velocity). Finally, the K-fold validation revealed the model to be stable (predicted vs actual R 2 = .77; 1.97% standard error of estimate).

Conclusions:

Only 3 physical-test scores were needed to obtain a valid and stable prediction of skeleton start ability. This method of isolating independent physical variables underlying performance could improve the validity and efficiency of athlete monitoring, potentially benefitting sport scientists, coaches, and athletes alike.

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Franco M. Impellizzeri and Samuele M. Marcora

We propose that physiological and performance tests used in sport science research and professional practice should be developed following a rigorous validation process, as is done in other scientific fields, such as clinimetrics, an area of research that focuses on the quality of clinical measurement and uses methods derived from psychometrics. In this commentary, we briefly review some of the attributes that must be explored when validating a test: the conceptual model, validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Examples from the sport science literature are provided.

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Donna W. Lockner, Vivian H. Heyward, Sharon E. Griffin, Martim B. Marques, Lisa M. Stolarczyk and Dale R. Wagner

The Segal fatness-specific bioelectrical impedance (BIA) equations are useful for predicting fat-free mass (FFM). Stolarczyk et al, proposed a modified method of averaging the two equations for individuals who are neither lean nor obese, thus eliminating the need to know % BF a priori. To cross-validate this modification, we compared FFM determined using the averaging method versus hydrostatic weighing for 76 adults. Per the averaging method, accuracy for males was excellent (r = .91, SEE = 2.7kg, E = 2.7kg), with 78% of individuals within ± 3.5% BF predicted by hydrostatic weighing. Accuracy for females was lower (r = .88, SEE = 3.0kg, E = 3.1 kg), with %BF of 51% within ±3.5% of the reference method. The relative ease and practicality of the averaging method and the results of this study indicate this method may be useful with a diverse group.