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Paul D. Loprinzi, Bradley J. Cardinal, Carlos J. Crespo, Gary R. Brodowicz, Ross E. Andersen and Ellen Smit

Background:

The exclusion of participants with invalid accelerometry data (IAD) may lead to biased results and/or lack of generalizability in large population studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether demographic, behavioral, and biological differences occur between those with IAD and valid accelerometry data (VAD) among adults using a representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population.

Methods:

Ambulatory participants from NHANES (2003−2004) who were 20−85 years of age were included in the current study and wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for 7 days. A “valid person” was defined as those with 4 or more days of at least 10+ hrs of monitoring per day. Among adults (20−85 yrs), 3088 participants provided VAD and 987 provided IAD. Demographic, behavioral, and biological information were obtained from the household interview or from data obtained in a mobile examination center.

Results:

Differences were observed in age, BMI, ethnicity, education, smoking status, marital status, use of street drugs, current health status, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, self-reported vigorous physical activity, and plasma glucose levels between those with VAD and IAD.

Conclusions:

Investigators should take into consideration the potential cut-off bias in interpreting results based on data that excludes IAD participants.

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Jacqueline M. Miotto, Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko, Jennifer L. Reich and Melissa M. Supler

A limiting factor in evaluating the functional status of older people is the lack of appropriate measurement tools for assessing functional mobility, muscle strength, aerobic endurance, agility, and flexibility. In this study, the reliability and validity of the seven-item Fullerton Functional Fitness Test (FFT) battery, designed for use with community-dwelling older adults, was examined. The test items were as follows: floor sit-and-reach, back scratch, 8-ft up-and-go, arm curl, 30-s chair stand. 2-min step, and 9-min walk. Seventy-nine participants (42 physically active, 37 sedentary) completed the FFT battery three times within a 2-week period. The test-retest reliability intraclass correlation coefficients were high. Construct validity analysis revealed that five of the seven FFT items discriminated between the physically active and sedentary groups. In conclusion, most of the evidence from the stability reliability and discriminant validity analyses supports the view that the Fullerton FFT battery is a reliable and valid test of functional fitness.

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David M. Williams, Jyoti Savla, Brenda M. Davy, Sarah A. Kelleher, Elaina L. Marinik and Richard A. Winett

The purpose of the present research was to develop questionnaires to assess outcome expectancy for resistance training (RT), behavioral expectation in the context of perceived barriers to RT, and self-regulation strategies for RT among young-old adults (50-69 years). Measurement development included (a) item generation through elicitation interviews (N = 14) and open-ended questionnaires (N = 56), (b) expert feedback on a preliminary draft of the questionnaires (N = 4), and (c) a quantitative longitudinal study for item-reduction and psychometric analyses (N = 94). Elicitation procedures, expert feedback, and item reduction yielded four questionnaires with a total of 33 items. Positive outcome expectancy (α = .809), negative outcome expectancy (α = .729), behavioral expectation (α = .925), and self-regulation (α = .761) had—with one exception—moderate bivariate associations with two different indicators of self-reported RT behavior at one-month follow-up (r = .298 to .506). The present research provides preliminary support for newly developed questionnaires to facilitate understanding of the psychosocial determinants of RT among young-old adults.

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Zachary Zenko and Panteleimon Ekkekakis

investigating the comparative validity of measures of automatic associations. Measurement as a Persistent Challenge in the Study of Automatic Associations Compared with explicit constructs, implicit processes are greatly understudied and remain poorly understood. Before exercise-specific dual-process theories

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Farzad Mohammadi, Abbas Bahram, Hasan Khalaji, Dale A. Ulrich and Farhad Ghadiri

. Validity is considered as one of the psychometric properties emphasized by researchers in order to evaluate the accuracy and significance of the obtained test scores. The measure expresses the extent of accuracy to which the test material can evaluate the constructs, properties, roles or abilities for

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Alan K. Bourke, Espen A. F. Ihlen and Jorunn L. Helbostad

criterion validation of the activPAL3 has been performed. Previously, Sellers, Dall, Grant, and Stansfield ( 2016b ) examined the validity and reliability for activity classification and step detection in a population of eight young and 20 adult participants. Participants performed a scripted routine and a

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Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius

, cardiac arrhythmias). Thus, valid submaximal exercise testing is very important among obese individuals as they have much to gain from a high quality exercise assessment and subsequent tailored intervention. However, most submaximal tests that are used—the Astrand and Rhyming step test, Astrand

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Ariane L. Bedimo-Rung, Jeanette Gustat, Bradley J. Tompkins, Janet Rice and Jessica Thomson

Background:

The study’s purpose is to describe the development and evaluate the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and validity (rater agreement with a gold standard) of a direct observation instrument to assess park characteristics that may be related to physical activity.

Methods:

A direct observation instrument of 181 items was developed based on a conceptual model consisting of the following domains: features, condition, access, esthetics, and safety. Fifteen pairs of observers were trained and sent to two parks simultaneously to assess two Target Areas each.

Results:

Overall domain reliability was 86.9%, and overall geographic area reliability was 87.5%. Overall domain validity was 78.7% and overall geographic area validity was 81.5%.

Conclusions:

Inter-rater reliability and validity were generally good, although validity was slightly lower than reliability. Objective items showed the highest reliability and validity. Items that are time-sensitive may need to be measured on multiple occasions, while items asking for subjective responses may require more supervised practice.

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Irini Anastasiadi and George Tzetzis

Background:

The Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and the Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) are 2 measures of children’s participation in various activities. The purpose of this study was the validation of the Greek version of “CAPE & PAC.”

Methods:

The questionnaires were translated and pilot tested on a sample of 25 individuals. The reliability and validity of the questionnaires were tested on 302 individuals (253 typical population, 49 disabled), 6−21 years of age. The construct validity of the instruments was examined the directional hypothesis by comparing known groups with existing differences. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the validity of the typology of activities. The reliability was examined by checking the internal consistency of the instruments.

Results:

The comparison between divergent groups confirmed the predicted differences of the mean scores and the validity of the instruments. Seven factors (categories of activities) emerged from the factor analysis. The acceptable range of Cronbach alpha for the PAC scale indicated high consistency.

Conclusion:

This study provides evidence that partially support the validity and reliability of “CAPE & PAC” instruments to use in Greek population. Further investigation is recommended for both clinical and research purposes.

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Emma L. J. Eyre, Jason Tallis, Susie Wilson, Lee Wilde, Liam Akhurst, Rildo Wanderleys and Michael J. Duncan

. For these reasons, recent focus has been placed on the validity of estimating activity intensities in children ( Chinapaw et al., 2010 ; De Vries et al., 2009 ; Lubans et al., 2011 ), older adults ( Garatachea et al., 2010 ), and, to a lesser extent, young adults ( Watson et al., 2014 ). Young