, cardiac arrhythmias). Thus, valid submaximal exercise testing is very important among obese individuals as they have much to gain from a high quality exercise assessment and subsequent tailored intervention. However, most submaximal tests that are used—the Astrand and Rhyming step test, Astrand
Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius
Do Young Pyun and Jeffrey D. James
A challenge with advertising communications is to better understand beliefs driving people’s attitude toward advertising. Successful use of sport communication requires a better understanding of the beliefs composing attitudes toward advertising through sport. A 4-phase study was conducted to develop a scale measuring 7 belief dimensions as indicants of attitude toward advertising through sport. Phase 1 (N = 125) provided an initial test of the proposed instrument. Phase 2 (N = 215) included an assessment of the revised scale based on internal-consistency tests and exploratory factor analysis. In Phase 3 (N = 424) the scale’s reliability and validity were verified using confirmatory factor analysis. In Phase 4 (N = 263) the internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were reexamined. The combined results provide support for the conceptualization and measurement of the belief dimensions for future investigation of the relationships between beliefs about and attitude toward advertising through sport.
Stephan R. Walk and Lenny D. Wiersma
Nixon’s (1994a; 1994b; 1996a; 1996b) research using a Risk, Pain, and Injury Questionnaire (RPIQ) is perhaps the most systematic in the risk, pain, and injury literature. The RPIQ is intended to measure the acceptance of dominant discourses on risk, pain, and injury among athletes and others. This article presents a face validity critique of the RPIQ and results of a subsequent content validity analysis based on a study of 171 athletes from a West Coast university. Structural equation modeling used to test Nixon’s original 3-factor model (M1) revealed poor model fit. Two alternate models (M2 and M3) tested reformulated subscale constructs and items. Whereas M2 demonstrated poor construct validity, limited support was found for items in M3. Further replications of this research are recommended.
Elizabeth M. Mullin
Homophobia and heterosexism in women’s collegiate athletics has been predominantly researched using qualitatively methodology (e.g., Blinde & Taub, 1992; Kauer & Krane, 2006; Krane 1996, 1997; Krane & Barber, 2003). Few researchers have examined the heterosexist attitudes from a quantitative perspective and few with a sport—specific questionnaire. The researcher examined whether on-going evidence of reliability and validity for the Heterosexist Attitudes in Sport—Lesbian scale (Mullin, 2013) questionnaire would be demonstrated. Female collegiate athletes (N = 239) from the mid-Atlantic region completed the HAS-L as well as a battery of questionnaires. Approximately 4 weeks later, participants completed the HAS-L again. The HAS-L was significantly related with the Attitudes toward Lesbians subscale of the Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Males—Short scale (Herek & McLemore, 2011) and other identified correlates of heterosexism, suggesting evidence of some criterion-related and convergent validity. Internal consistency and test-retest estimates ranged from .50–85 and .64–.91, respectively. The findings demonstrate good evidence of reliability and validity for the Cognitive/Affective subscale of the HAS-L. More research is necessary to better examine the behavioral subscales. Future researchers should consider making revisions of the Avoidance of the Lesbian Label subscale to achieve acceptable levels of reliability and validity.
Douglas E. Martin and Richard A. Dodder
© 1993 Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.
In the early 1970s Spreitzer and Snyder developed the Psychosocial Functions of Sport Scale to assess people’s perceptions of the importance of sport, and they administered this instrument to a sample of Toledo, Ohio, residents. This study reassesses the reliability and construct validity of the scale and examines college students’ perceptions of the importance of sport. Factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha indicate that Spreitzer and Snyder’s scale meets the criteria of reliability and construct validity. An item analysis indicates that most subjects believe sport to be important for individuals and society. Subjects’ responses to 12 of the 15 items are strikingly similar to the response distribution reported by Spreitzer and Snyder; however, there are notable differences on three of the items, suggesting that the present sample did not view sport as an institution that develops good citizens, promotes fair play, or alleviates drug problems in society.
This paper questions both the validity of the “value-differences thesis” put forward by White and Curtis as an explanation for differences in sport participation on the part of Canadian Anglophones and Francophones, and the inference of these authors that such hypothetical value-differences may better explain historical and contemporary inequalities between the two language groups than the alternative “conquest and discrimination” model. It is suggested that White and Curtis’ argument only stands up insofar as the discrimination model is not thoroughly discussed and tested. In particular the central role played by sports as a site in which social inequalities are structured and reinforced is not adequately taken into account by these authors.
Steven Baumann and Keith Henschen
In recent years, the academic standards of the collegiate student athlete have become a popular subject within the sociology of sport. In January 1983, the top competitive division of the NCAA voted to make more stringent the academic standards for participants in Division I intercollegiate sports. This was known as Proposal 48, and although the vote was 2 to 1 in favor of it, much criticism was also voiced. This study examines the relationship between the American College Testing Program (ACT) and actual grade point average (GPA) for 753 male and female athletes at the University of Utah during a 10-year period. A secondary purpose was to determine the predictive validity of a predicted GPA formula (PGPA) and high school grade point average (HSGPA) as estimates of actual GPA. Other purposes were to determine the correlation of ACT, PGPA, and HSGPA with regard to gender, race, and sport. Pearson product-moment correlations were utilized to establish relationships between ACT scores, PGPA, and HSGPA with actual GPA. A multiple correlation coefficient was computed and a regression equation was established. In addition, a cross-validation was performed on the existing data. Results indicated that an equation combining ACT and HSGPA is the best predictor for Caucasians, while HSGPA alone is the best predictor for non-Caucasians. Factors other than ACT scores appear to be better predictors of academic success for the student-athlete, thus casting doubt upon the validity of Proposal 48 for the NCAA.
Jennifer L. Gay, Eva V. Monsma, Alan L. Smith, J.D. DeFreese and Toni Torres-McGehee
Growth and maturation may impact adolescent behavior and development of psychological disorders. Currently age at menarche is used as the primary marker of maturation, even though it occurs later than other indicators of growth such as peak height velocity (PHV). Maturity offset predicting age at PHV has not been validated in diverse samples. Anthropometric measures and self-reported age at menarche were obtained for 212 female athletes ages 11 to 16 years (M = 13.25). Shared variance between menarcheal age and estimated age at PHV (APHV) was small (R 2 = 5.3%). Discriminant validity was established by classifying participants as pre- or post-PHV or menarche (X2 = 32.62, P < .0001). The Pearson’s correlation between chronological age and age at PHV (r = .69) was stronger than with age at menarche (r = .26). Making informed decisions about accounting for growth and maturation using estimated age at PHV are offered.
Cynthia A. Hasbrook
While there appears to be valid evidence to support the notion that sport participation is related to social class, such a relationship has not been clearly and directly demonstrated to exist among youth. Consequently, data from two studies that specifically investigated the potential relationship between formal youth sport participation and social class background are reported. The findings indicate that regardless of social class background, male youth participate in sport to an equal extent whereas female youth from lower social class backgrounds tend to participate in sport to a lesser degree than do their upper-class counterparts. Several explanations for these somewhat unexpected findings are offered, including the possibility of a diminishing relationship between sport participation and social class background. The multiple hierarchy notion of stratification is offered as a theoretical model in which to couch the major finding that sport participation appears to be stratified along social class lines among female youth but not among male youth.
Susan Wilkinson, Kay M. Williamson and Ruth Rozdilsky
Issues concerning children’s fitness levels and fitness tests have been prevalent in the literature. Topics include whether fitness levels of American youth have declined and whether fitness tests are reliable, valid, and appropriate. Schools have questioned the merit of fitness tests, as opposed to fitness as an activity toward a healthy lifestyle. Absent from discussion are various moral and ethical implications embedded in the differential performance criteria set for boys and girls of the same age. Given the physiological similarity between boys and girls until age 12, this study was conducted to determine if there was a significant difference between fitness scores of boys and girls aged 10 through 13 years on the Physical Best test battery to warrant differential performance criteria. Girls were found to be significantly more flexible than boys on the sit and reach test, while boys performed significantly more pull-ups on the pull-up test. Prior to age 13 there were no statistically significant differences between mean fitness scores of girls and boys of the same age, even though established performance criteria are lower for girls than for boys. It is apparent that potential gender bias exists in the determination of Physical Best’s performance criteria for boys and girls. The consequences of differential expectations are discussed and a call for the re-evaluation of fitness standards are included.