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Do Young Pyun and Jeffrey D. James

A challenge with advertising communications is to better understand beliefs driving people’s attitude toward advertising. Successful use of sport communication requires a better understanding of the beliefs composing attitudes toward advertising through sport. A 4-phase study was conducted to develop a scale measuring 7 belief dimensions as indicants of attitude toward advertising through sport. Phase 1 (N = 125) provided an initial test of the proposed instrument. Phase 2 (N = 215) included an assessment of the revised scale based on internal-consistency tests and exploratory factor analysis. In Phase 3 (N = 424) the scale’s reliability and validity were verified using confirmatory factor analysis. In Phase 4 (N = 263) the internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were reexamined. The combined results provide support for the conceptualization and measurement of the belief dimensions for future investigation of the relationships between beliefs about and attitude toward advertising through sport.

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Carrie W. LeCrom, Brendan Dwyer and Gregory Greenhalgh

). Data Analysis SPSS 24 was utilized in the analysis of all data to answer the RQs, t tests, mixed-design multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and regression analyses. However, prior to running these analyses, the validity and reliability of the five-dimension global-mindedness scale was

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Allison B. Smith, Cheryl R. Rode and Robin Hardin

absent in sports programming as well as commercials. However, when they do appear, they have roles as “sexy, masculinity-validity props, often cheering the men on” (p. 383). Messner et al. ( 2000 ) found that women were depicted as sexual objects and presented in a sexualized nature. Cooky, Messner, and

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Megan B. Shreffler, Samuel H. Schmidt and James Weiner

because content analysis is used as a qualitative research technique for “making replicable and valid inferences from data to their context” ( Krippendorff, 1989 , p. 403). The population for this study included bachelor’s and master’s sport management programs in the United States. The reasoning for the

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Ceyda Mumcu and Gil Fried

, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information included herein and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. References Alford , J. (n.d.). What Major League Soccer knows about predictive

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Gareth J. Jones, Kristy McCray and Robin Hardin

well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. (p. 18) Importantly, the emphasis on external adaptation highlights how organizational cultures are influenced by characteristics of the

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Molly Hayes Sauder and Michael Mudrick

completing this semester.)” The survey was subjected to expert review, cognitive interviews, and focus groups to ensure that valid responses would be obtained. Specifically, experts in survey design (two) and experiential learning (two) reviewed the survey. Four sport management alumni then engaged in

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Jamee A. Pelcher and Brian P. McCullough

can be approved. Despite the student-led charge of sustainability initiatives at athletic events, the Athletic Department has lagged behind other departments at Smallville University and cited lack of both financial and human resources. These are valid challenges due to budget and staffing constraints

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Evie Oregon, Lauren McCoy, Lacee’ Carmon-Johnson and Angel Brown-Reveles

contract buyouts, an amount that is greater than the entire athletic budget at 177 Division I public schools ( Berkowitz, 2017 ). The staggering amount of money in play for coaching contracts often leads others to question the validity of this strategy, along with the structure of college athletics. John

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Christopher R. Barnhill, W. Andrew Czekanski and Adam G. Pfleegor

, want to work closely with athletes, being a sports fan, the “ease” of the major, and the “fun” of the major. Validity and Reliability Subsequent to the creation of the questionnaire and before it was circulated to students for completion, the questionnaire was distributed to and reviewed by three