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Louisa D. Raisbeck and Jed A. Diekfuss

Performance benefits exist for an external focus of attention compared with an internal focus of attention for performance and learning (Wulf, 2013). It is unknown, however, if varying the number of verbal cues affects learning and performance. Focus of attention and the number of verbal cues were manipulated during a simulated handgun-shooting task. For the internal focus conditions, participants were told to focus on their hand, arm, and wrist, whereas the external focus instructions were to focus on the gun, gun barrel, and gun stock. To manipulate the number of verbal cues, participants received instruction to focus on a single verbal cue or multiple verbal cues. Shooting performance was assessed at baseline, acquisition, and at two separate retention phases (immediate, delayed) that included transfer tests. Participants completed the NASA—Task Load Index to assess workload following all trials. Participants who received one verbal cue performed significantly better during immediate retention than those who received three verbal cues. Participants who used external focus of attention instructions had higher performance and reported less workload at delayed retention compared to those who used internal focus instructions. This research provides further support for the benefits of an external focus and highlights the importance of minimizing the number of verbal cues.

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Julián Gandía, Xavier García-Massó, Adrián Marco-Ahulló and Isaac Estevan

including terminal-augmented feedback in PE curricula ( Sattelmayer, Elsig, Hilfiker & Baer, 2016 ). During PE lessons, verbal cues used by PE teachers when teaching motor skills seems to be useful for guiding students to attend to the critical elements of skill execution and highlighting the most common

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Gordon A. Bloom, Rebecca Crumpton and Jenise E. Anderson

A systematic observation analysis was performed on Fresno State men’s basketball coach Jerry Tarkanian over the course of an entire season. Based on Tharp and Gallimore’s (1976) work and recent research on expert coaches’ training techniques (Côté et al., 1995; Durand-Bush, 1996), the Revised Coaching Behavior Recording Form was created to observe and record Tarkanian’s teaching behaviors and verbal cues. Results showed that tactical instructions was the most frequently occurring variable, representing 29% of the coded behaviors. This behavior was 13% higher than the second highest variable, hustles (16%). Following these two categories were technical instruction (13.9%), praise\encouragement (13.6%), general instructions (12%), scolds (6%), and six other categories with percentages less than 3%. This means that almost one-third of Coach Tarkanian’s practice behaviors relate to teaching offensive and defensive strategies to his team. This differs from the practice sessions of beginner- and intermediate-level coaches, who often focus on teaching fundamental skills to their athletes. A complete description of all 12 categories are provided along with implications for coaches of all levels.

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Behrouz Abdoli, James Hardy, Javad F. Riyahi and Alireza Farsi

for verbal cues), the empirically supported kinematic principles of basketball free throws, as well as discussion with expert basketball coaches. As a result, participants assigned to be motivational self-talk group used the phrase “I will be successful” whereas their instructional self

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Rebecca Robertson, Laura St. Germain and Diane M. Ste-Marie

; Ste-Marie et al., 2012 ). One factor that appears to be important, for example, is the need to guide the learner to the relevant information within the self-observation video. This guiding information could be provided through verbal cueing as it has been shown that observation with verbal cues can

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Susan J. Leach, Joyce R. Maring and Ellen Costello

adults scored significantly higher than healthy older adults on the MSL in all directions as well as on the Rapid Step test, where participants stepped as fast as possible to at least 80% of their MSL in response to verbal cues ( Medell & Alexander, 2000 ). Both healthy older and younger adults

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Moslem Bahmani, Jed A. Diekfuss, Robabeh Rostami, Nasim Ataee and Farhad Ghadiri

.1.47-52 Raisbeck , L.D. , & Diekfuss , J.A. ( 2017 ). Verbal cues and attentional focus: A simulated target-shooting experiment . Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 5 ( 1 ), 148 – 159 . doi:10.1123/jmld.2016-0017 10.1123/jmld.2016-0017 Rosenqvist , O. , & Skans , O.N. ( 2015 ). Confidence

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Vítor Pires Lopes, Linda Saraiva, Celina Gonçalves and Luis P. Rodrigues

–24). Skills were demonstrated whenever children could not identify the skill from the picture and verbal cue ( Lopes, Barnett, Saraiva, et al., 2016 ). Motor Skills Competence Test Actual motor skill competence was assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd edition (TGMD2; Ulrich, 2000 ). This

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Britton W. Brewer, Adisa Haznadar, Dylan Katz, Judy L. Van Raalte and Albert J. Petitpas

arousal regulation, attentional focusing, imagery/mental practice, and recitation of verbal cues ( Lidor, 2010 ). A mental warm-up can, therefore, be conceptualized as a specific type of preperformance routine that is applicable to multiple sports, including those with tasks involving open skills; is done

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AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Christopher McCrum and Kiros Karamanidis

instructed every participant throughout this study to ensure consistent verbal cues. The participants were instructed to execute a double-leg landing task by stepping off a platform (height = 30 cm) and landing barefoot with each foot on each force plate; they were asked to employ their natural landing style