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Louisa D. Raisbeck and Jed A. Diekfuss

Performance benefits exist for an external focus of attention compared with an internal focus of attention for performance and learning (Wulf, 2013). It is unknown, however, if varying the number of verbal cues affects learning and performance. Focus of attention and the number of verbal cues were manipulated during a simulated handgun-shooting task. For the internal focus conditions, participants were told to focus on their hand, arm, and wrist, whereas the external focus instructions were to focus on the gun, gun barrel, and gun stock. To manipulate the number of verbal cues, participants received instruction to focus on a single verbal cue or multiple verbal cues. Shooting performance was assessed at baseline, acquisition, and at two separate retention phases (immediate, delayed) that included transfer tests. Participants completed the NASA—Task Load Index to assess workload following all trials. Participants who received one verbal cue performed significantly better during immediate retention than those who received three verbal cues. Participants who used external focus of attention instructions had higher performance and reported less workload at delayed retention compared to those who used internal focus instructions. This research provides further support for the benefits of an external focus and highlights the importance of minimizing the number of verbal cues.

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Julián Gandía, Xavier García-Massó, Adrián Marco-Ahulló and Isaac Estevan

including terminal-augmented feedback in PE curricula ( Sattelmayer, Elsig, Hilfiker & Baer, 2016 ). During PE lessons, verbal cues used by PE teachers when teaching motor skills seems to be useful for guiding students to attend to the critical elements of skill execution and highlighting the most common

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Susan J. Leach, Joyce R. Maring and Ellen Costello

adults scored significantly higher than healthy older adults on the MSL in all directions as well as on the Rapid Step test, where participants stepped as fast as possible to at least 80% of their MSL in response to verbal cues ( Medell & Alexander, 2000 ). Both healthy older and younger adults

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Rebecca Robertson, Laura St. Germain and Diane M. Ste-Marie

; Ste-Marie et al., 2012 ). One factor that appears to be important, for example, is the need to guide the learner to the relevant information within the self-observation video. This guiding information could be provided through verbal cueing as it has been shown that observation with verbal cues can

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Vítor Pires Lopes, Linda Saraiva, Celina Gonçalves and Luis P. Rodrigues

–24). Skills were demonstrated whenever children could not identify the skill from the picture and verbal cue ( Lopes, Barnett, Saraiva, et al., 2016 ). Motor Skills Competence Test Actual motor skill competence was assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd edition (TGMD2; Ulrich, 2000 ). This

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Moslem Bahmani, Jed A. Diekfuss, Robabeh Rostami, Nasim Ataee and Farhad Ghadiri

.1.47-52 Raisbeck , L.D. , & Diekfuss , J.A. ( 2017 ). Verbal cues and attentional focus: A simulated target-shooting experiment . Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 5 ( 1 ), 148 – 159 . doi:10.1123/jmld.2016-0017 10.1123/jmld.2016-0017 Rosenqvist , O. , & Skans , O.N. ( 2015 ). Confidence

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AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Christopher McCrum and Kiros Karamanidis

instructed every participant throughout this study to ensure consistent verbal cues. The participants were instructed to execute a double-leg landing task by stepping off a platform (height = 30 cm) and landing barefoot with each foot on each force plate; they were asked to employ their natural landing style

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Isaac Estevan, Javier Molina-García, Gavin Abbott, Steve J. Bowe, Isabel Castillo and Lisa M. Barnett

not tried some skills were asked whether they recognized the skill; when they effectively recognized the skill, they were asked to rate their perceived competence. Children who had not recognized the task from the picture verbal cue were supported by providing a demonstration by the assessor. The

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Yolanda Barrado-Martín, Michelle Heward, Remco Polman and Samuel R. Nyman

verbal cues that confirmed consent to participate. During the data collection process, participants were informed that any data collected would be anonymized so their identities or any personal details would not be disclosed, and participants’ nonverbal communication, particularly for those living with

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Anna-Eva Prick, Jacomine de Lange, Erik Scherder, Jos Twisk and Anne Margriet Pot

physical exercises together with the person with dementia. Visual and verbal cues were given as often as necessary to help the participant perform the exercises safely and correctly. Daily record of performance should be written on the exercise log. All exercises Strengthening exercises Ankle and wrist