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Lee N. Burkett, Joana Ziuraitis and Wayne T. Phillips

The effectiveness of two specific and two non-specific warm-ups on the vertical jump test for female athletes was the focus of this research. The four warm-up procedures were: (a) weighted jumping (WT), (b) submaximal vertical jumping (SUB), (c) stretching (ST), and (d) no warm-up (NW). To control for learning and fatigue, a counter-balanced design was used to test all participants over four different days. Thus all groups were tested in a predetermined order. Participants were 15 university female athletes (age 18 to 23 years). After warming up using one of the four warm-up procedures, three vertical jumps were measured and the best score was used for analysis. A single factors repeated measure analysis of variance and LSD post hoc tests revealed that the weighted jump warm-up procedure was statistically superior (p<0.01) to all other warm-up procedures. No warm-up was statistically inferior to all other warm-ups and submaximal vertical jumping was not statistically different than stretching. It was concluded; (a) performing a warmup is better than no warm-up, and (b) utilizing a weighted resistance-jumping warm-up will produce the highest scores when performing the vertical jump test for female athletes.

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Javier Horcajo, Borja Paredes, Guillermo Higuero, Pablo Briñol and Richard E. Petty

-statements while moving their heads, participants’ performance was assessed in three different tasks. (A vertical jump task in which jump height was computed, a squat test in which pulse rate [PR] was measured, and a deadlift task in which amount of weight in one-repetition maximum [1RM] was estimated

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Christina Duff, Johann Issartel, Wesley O’ Brien and Sarahjane Belton

-week period. Fundamental Movement Skills Four FMS were assessed consisting of two locomotor skills (run and vertical jump) and two object control skills (catch and overhand throw). Skills were assessed using the guidelines from the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 ( Ulrich, 2000 ) for run, catch, and

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

: maximal oxygen consumption, vertical jump, grip strength, and push-ups. Body mass index was also obtained at admission and discharge. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Washington University in St. Louis prior to data collection. Physical Outcome Measures Body Mass Index (BMI

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Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen and Eija K. Laakkonen

including the tests for 6-min walk distance, knee extension force, vertical jump height, and grip strength. In addition, a test–retest reliability analysis was performed. Methods Cohort Description Cross-sectional baseline data of the Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis study were analyzed. The study

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Christina Duff, Johann Issartel, Wesley O’ Brien and Sarahjane Belton

was constrained by the summer break within the ECCE term and therefore the pilot was six weeks in duration. Due to this short timeframe, only four FMS (two locomotor skills: run and vertical jump; two object control skills: catch and overhand throw) were included in the pilot program. Educators

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Jakob Tarp, Anna Bugge, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Christina Trifonov Rexen, Anders Grøntved and Niels Wedderkopp

attempts on an analogue handgrip dynamometer (Smedley’s dynamometer; Scandidact, Odder, Denmark) while standing. The dynamometer was adjusted to hand size. The result was divided by body weight for analysis. 20 Muscular power was measured by a vertical jump test as the highest vertical displacement (in

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Isaac Selva Raj, Stephen R. Bird, Ben A. Westfold and Anthony J. Shield

Reliable measures of muscle strength and functional capacity in older adults are essential. The aim of this study was to determine whether coefficients of variation (CVs) of individuals obtained at the first session can infer repeatability of performance in a subsequent session. Forty-eight healthy older adults (mean age 68.6 ± 6.1 years; age range 60–80 years) completed two assessment sessions, and on each occasion undertook: dynamometry for isometric and isokinetic quadriceps strength, 6 meter fast walk (6MFWT), timed up and go (TUG), stair climb and descent, and vertical jump. Significant linear relationships were observed between CVs in session 1 and the percentage difference between sessions 1 and 2 for torque at 60, 120, 240 and 360°/s, 6MFWT, TUG, stair climb, and stair descent. The results of this study could be used to establish criteria for determining an acceptably reliable performance in strength and functional tests.

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Anni Rava, Anu Pihlak, Jaan Ereline, Helena Gapeyeva, Tatjana Kums, Priit Purge, Jaak Jürimäe and Mati Pääsuke

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.

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Susumu S. Sawada, I-Min Lee, Hisashi Naito, Koji Tsukamoto, Takashi Muto and Steven N. Blair

Background:

Limited data are available on the relationship between muscular and performance fitness (MPF) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

Methods:

A cohort of 3792 Japanese men completed a medical examination that included MPF and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. MPF index composite score was calculated using Z-scores from vertical jump, sit-ups, side step, and functional reach tests.

Results:

The mean follow-up period was 187 months (15.6 years). There were 240 patients who developed type 2 diabetes during follow-up. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incidence of diabetes across baseline quartiles of MPF index composite score were obtained using the Cox proportional hazards model while adjusting for age, BMI, diastolic blood pressure, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and family history of diabetes. The relative risks for developing diabetes across quartiles of MPF index composite scores (lowest to highest) were 1.0 (referent), 1.15 (95% CI 0.83−1.60), 1.10 (0.78−1.55), and 0.57 (0.37−0.90) (P for trend = .061). These results were attenuated after adjustment for cardiorespiratory fitness (P for trend = .125).

Conclusions:

This prospective study suggests that MPF is a predictor of type 2 diabetes, although its predictive ability was attenuated after adjusting for cardiorespiratory fitness.