-efficacy is military service members ( Jeffress & Brown, 2017 ). Sport participation can be utilized to help this population reintegrate into society following combat, especially among those who have sustained injuries. However, wounded veterans may not respond positively to a physical activity program if
Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang
Stephen M. Glass, Christopher K. Rhea, Matthew W. Wittstein, Scott E. Ross, John P. Florian and F.J. Haran
water-based exercise interventions. 24 , 25 In contrast, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-duration exposure to underwater immersion on static, terrestrial postural control in a sample of veteran divers. Two hypotheses were formulated: (1) that a single long-duration exposure
Raquel Carvalho, Olga Vasconcelos, Pedro Gonçalves, Filipe Conceição and João Paulo Vilas-Boas
Exercise seems to attenuate the postural control system and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) decline, but no conclusive findings are available. This study analyses, in elderly people, the exercise effect in APAs during the raising of a load with both arms in the sagittal plane. Twenty eight males over the age of 60 (65,8 ± 4,07 yr old)—9 veterans in exercising, 9 who exercise recently, and 10 sedentary—were asked to raise a load with both arms simultaneously to shoulder level, in standing position, as fast as possible. It was studied the electromyography (EMG) pattern of the main muscles. The APAs were quantified through the time integral of EMG records (iEMG). Anticipatory changes in the postural muscles were seen in all groups. We observed, in the tibialis anterior activity, a higher significant activation in the sedentary compared with the other groups, suggesting that exercise can modulate the postural control system.
A study was undertaken to determine the kinematic nature of the decline in sprint velocity that has been found to occur with aging. Subjects included 162 Master’s sprinters ranging in age from 30 to 94 years. Data were collected at a national championship meet and a World Veterans Championships through use of videotape and the Peak Performance Motion Measurement System. From the digitized videotape data, measures of sprint stride velocity, stride length, stride period, support time, swing time, flight time, and hip, knee, and trunk range of motion were calculated. Velocity, stride length, flight time, swing time, and range of motion in the hip and knee all decreased significantly (p<.05) with age, whereas stride period and support time increased. Further, the proportional relationship between the components of the stride was significantly (p<.05) altered. From this it was inferred that as these sprinters aged there was a decreased ability to exert muscle force as well as a decreased ability to move quickly through a full range of lower extremity motion.
Randy C. Battochio, Robert J. Schinke, Mark A. Eys, Danny L. Battochio, Wayne Halliwell and Gershon Tenenbaum
Semistructured interviews were used in this study to learn about the challenges experienced by four groups of National Hockey League (NHL) players (N= 11): prospects (n= 3), rookies (n= 3), veterans (n= 2), and retirees (n= 3). The database is comprised of 757 meaning units grouped into 11 contextual challenges. From an additional quantitative analysis, the prospects and rookies emphasized challenges pertaining to scouting demands, training camp, increased athletic demands, team expectations, and earning team trust. The veterans spoke mostly of challenges including scouting demands, athletic demands, and team expectations. Retirees considered mostly challenges pertaining to team expectations, athletic demands, lifestyle, media demands, transactions, cross-cultural encounters, and playoffs. An expert panel ensured that the interview guide, data analysis, and the findings represented the participants’ experiences in the NHL. Recommendations for practitioners and researchers working with NHL players are proposed.
Celina H. Shirazipour, Madelaine Meehan and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
The Invictus Games are a parasport competition for service members and veterans with illnesses and injuries. The 2014 Games were aired by the BBC, for a total of 12 hr of coverage. This study aimed to investigate what messages were conveyed regarding parasport for veterans during the BBC’s Invictus Games broadcast. A content analysis was conducted. Five qualitative themes were identified: sport as rehabilitation, the promotion of ability over disability, the social environment, key outcomes of participation, and the importance of competition. Quantitative results indicated that 2 segment types accounted for the majority of the broadcast: sport coverage (50.57%) and athlete experiences (12.56%). Around half of the coverage focused on participants with a physical disability (51.62%). The findings demonstrate key similarities to and differences from previous explorations of parasport media coverage, with the needs of the event and athlete population potentially influencing the broadcast.
Grant E. Norte, Jay N. Hertel, Susan A. Saliba, David R. Diduch and Joseph M. Hart
McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index 15 were used to quantify regional knee function. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia 16 and Veteran’s RAND 12-Item Health Survey 17 were used to quantify psychological function. The Tegner activity scale 18 and Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire 19 were
John J. Fraser and Jay Hertel
.3 (1.9) 0.5 (1.0) .24 Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey Physical composite (T) score 56.4 (3.4) 57.7 (2.2) .27 Mental health composite (T) score 48.2 (0.9) 48.3 (1.1) .92 Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire 75.7 (27.4) 79.7 (27.2) .73 Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia 14.9 (3.2) 15.8 (4.0) .54
Ulla M. Lahtinen
The present aspirations for equality, normalization, and integration have given rise to increased demand for further development of sport for special groups. This is dependent upon an understanding of the existing sporting behavior. This article describes several Finnish studies of the sporting behavior of persons on disability pension, war veterans, those chronically ill or disabled, the mentally handicapped, and the visually impaired. Sporting behavior depends on one’s free time, interests, earlier practices, age, gender, and state of health. Poor health or a disability limits sporting activity, but it may also lead to more rehabilitative sport and exercise. The findings of the studies reveal features that need to be developed in sport for special groups.
Frank M. Brasile
The data used for statistical analysis in this investigation were based on results from 79 males tested at the National Wheelchair Basketball Association/Paralyzed Veterans of America wheelchair basketball camp held at Wright State University in August 1989. Results acquired from a multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences in scores across NWBA player classification levels. Post hoc comparisons indicated that Class II and Class III participants were similar and that Class I participants recorded lower overall skills proficiency scores. A stepwise forward regression analysis was conducted to determine the influence of predictor variables on skill proficiency levels. Results indicate that one’s level of disability may influence performance; however, amount of time spent in practice, previous experience in the sport, and age also influence one’s overall performance in wheelchair basketball.