Using data on the salaries of 212 nonpitchers appearing in team lineups on major league baseball’s 1977 Opening Day, this article explores how rewards to veteran professionals are influenced by race. Multiple regression analyses and separate comparisons of regression coefficients for returns to performances by blacks and by whites reveal a single indication of salary discrimination against blacks. White infielders are apparently paid more for each home run they hit than are their black counterparts.
Kevin J. Christiano
Kevin J. Christiano
A series of multiple regression analyses using the most recent publicly available data on the salaries of veteran hitters in major league baseball uncovers little evidence of economic discrimination by race. Comparisons of unstandardized regression coefficients for player variables, by race and position, reveal a number of instances of inequality. However, these inequalities do not occur consistently with respect to the same type of performance, nor do they always place blacks at a disadvantage. Furthermore, blacks who do not enjoy the market power granted to players by the advent of free agency are not uniformly victimized by discrimination in salaries. Instead, the newest evidence suggests that signs of salary discrimination that were found in data on hitters from the 1977 season are not manifest 10 years later.
Bobbi A. Knapp
People commonly think of only men playing football. Football, however, has also been played by women for many years. Using a feminist interactionist framework, this study examines why women begin to play the game. The research questions that guided this study were: (1) what factors influence women’s decisions to play football? and (2) how do women begin to develop their identities as football players? Data were collected using participant observation over a two-year period and 10 semi-structured interviews. Some of the reasons participants stated for starting to play football were for their love of the sport, a desire to be a part of history, or the physicality of the sport. The women’s abilities and personal characteristics, significant others, and veteran players were crucial in the development of their identities as players. The information obtained could be used to bring more women into the sport.
This article uses a case-study approach to develop an understanding of how framing on game telecasts can increase the brand equity of sports venues. In 2014, ESPN ranked the NHL’s New York Islanders last in “stadium experience” among all 122 teams in the 4 major North American sports leagues. Given the Islanders’ looming relocation, the 2014–15 NHL season afforded the last opportunity to consider how telecasts would portray the team’s arena, Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum on Long Island. Based on a textual analysis of Islanders telecasts, 2 frames emerged: atmosphere (loud cheering and tributes to veterans) and nostalgia (famous moments and players from the arena’s history). Teams that play in poorly regarded venues can encourage broadcasters to employ frames such as atmosphere and nostalgia to increase attendance and sales of venue-related merchandise.
Bryan C. Clift
took place within various activities. The organization and participants with whom I spoke always knew my presence as both a volunteer and researcher. These interviews and my field notes form the empirical base of this article. In Baltimore, The House—a 90-bed residential treatment facility for veterans
Kenneth Sean Chaplin and Jeffrey Montez de Oca
Male, Freshman, Undecided major, from New York) Several students further justified their support for the protests by referencing US military veterans. They argue that veterans fought for our freedoms and, therefore, it is our responsibility to utilize the freedoms given to us by the sacrifices of
Leslee A. Fisher
Activity Journal, 27 , 136 – 140 . 10.1123/wspaj.2019-0030 McIntyre , D. ( July 7 , 2019 ). What does the future hold for USWNT coach Jill Ellis after World Cup? Yahoo Sports . Retrieved from https://www.yahoo.com/entertainment/what-does-the-future-hold-for-uswnt-coach-jill-ellis-and-her-veteran
Hans C. Rasmussen
Even among whites the contrast between civilization and barbarism implied by the traditional sides exerted its spell over the players’ personalities. Henry Prevost, a raquette veteran, recalled that La Ville attracted “a better element—clerks, office men and some workingmen. The Bayous were of the
John D. Fair
-selling single recording of all time. 6 It was a banner year for musicals, and Athena was expected to be part of this seemingly seamless flow of box office triumphs. The credentials of the production staff and cast of Athena provided ample reason for optimism. It was scripted by two veteran screen writers
Holly Thorpe, Julie Brice and Anna Rolleston
focus on performance and training, combined with a unique cultural approach to building the team morale and community that embraces aspects of Māori culture ( Strang, 2018 , July 20; Willis, 2018 , February 9). In a recent article on veteran player Ruby Tui, reporter Bailey ( 2018 ) writes, “[Ruby