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Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang

-efficacy is military service members ( Jeffress & Brown, 2017 ). Sport participation can be utilized to help this population reintegrate into society following combat, especially among those who have sustained injuries. However, wounded veterans may not respond positively to a physical activity program if

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Gina M. McCaskill, Olivio J. Clay, Peng Li, Richard E. Kennedy, Kathryn L. Burgio and Cynthia J. Brown

mortality among men and women 60 years of age and older. They found that participants with high cardiorespiratory fitness had lower all-cause mortality risk and lower cardiovascular disease risk, compared with participants with low cardiorespiratory fitness. Among older adults, veterans may represent a

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Odessa Addison, Monica C. Serra, Leslie Katzel, Jamie Giffuni, Cathy C. Lee, Steven Castle, Willy M. Valencia, Teresa Kopp, Heather Cammarata, Michelle McDonald, Kris A. Oursler, Chani Jain, Janet Prvu Bettger, Megan Pearson, Kenneth M. Manning, Orna Intrator, Peter Veazie, Richard Sloane, Jiejin Li and Miriam C. Morey

strict intervention protocols and exclusion criteria that limit their applicability across the spectrum of community-dwelling older adults ( Kritchevsky et al., 2017 ; Manini et al., 2010 ; Rejeski et al., 2011 ). The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides health care to over nine million

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Rachel A. Millstein, Katherine D. Hoerster, Dori E. Rosenberg, Karin M. Nelson, Gayle Reiber and Brian E. Saelens

Background:

Sedentary behavior is an increasingly recognized health risk factor, independent of physical activity. Although several correlates of sedentary behavior are known, little research has identified them among U.S. veterans, a population that faces disproportionate chronic disease burden.

Methods:

A survey was mailed to 1997 randomly selected veterans at a large urban Veterans Affairs medical center in 2012 and remailed in 2013 to nonresponders, resulting in a 40% response rate. We examined individual-, social-, and neighborhood-level factors in association with self-reported sitting time. Factors correlated with sitting time at P < .05 were included in a multiple linear regression model.

Results:

In the multivariate model, higher depression (B = 7.8), body mass index (B = 5.1), functional impairment (B = 4.2), and self-rated health (B = 68.5) were significantly associated with higher sitting time, and leisure time physical activity (B = –0.10) and being employed (B = –71.3) were significantly associated with lower sitting time.

Conclusions:

Individual-level, but not social- and neighborhood-level, variables were associated with sitting time in this population. This study identified individual-level targets for reducing sitting time and improving overall health among veterans.

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Alyson J. Littman, Christopher W. Forsberg and Edward J. Boyko

Background:

Military veterans provide a large and diverse population to examine the extent to which compulsory physical activity (PA) in early adulthood is associated with PA later in life.

Methods:

We assessed self-reported and objectively measured PA and sedentary time in the 900 veterans and 2036 nonveterans with valid data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Analyses were adjusted for the complex survey design and age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and poverty.

Results:

Based on self-report, the proportion of veterans and nonveterans meeting PA Guidelines did not differ significantly (51.1% vs. 43.9%, P = .26). However, a greater proportion of veterans reported regular vigorous leisure-time activity (30.4% vs. 19.6%, P = .04) and muscle-strengthening activities (24.4 vs. 16.7, P = .051). Based on objective PA monitoring, activity levels between veterans and nonveterans also did not differ significantly, although mean counts and minutes per day were numerically greater in nonveterans. By self-report (P = .02) and PA monitors (P = .065), estimated sedentary time was greater in veterans than in demographically similar nonveterans.

Conclusions:

Veterans were no more likely than nonveterans to meet PA Guidelines, but may have been more likely to perform vigorous activities and conversely, to spend more time in sedentary activities.

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Heather Hayes Betz, Jonathan Myers, Alyssa Jaffe, Kimberly Smith and Ronald Dalman

Background:

Quantifying lifetime physical activity using self-reported measures is challenging due to reliance on recall, especially in older populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the 1-year reproducibility of the Veterans Physical Activity Questionnaire (VAPAQ) in a cohort of patients with documented abdominal aortic aneurysm disease (AAA).

Methods:

Subjects included men (n = 52) and women (n = 3) enrolled in AAA STOP, a randomized trial designed to test the ability of supervised exercise training to modify AAA biology and early disease progression.

Results:

The overall correlation coefficient for lifetime recreational energy expenditure between the 2 examinations was 0.93 (P < .001), with an overall difference of 26 kcal/week, a typical error (standard deviation of the differences) of 171 kcals/week, and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 15.5%.

Conclusions:

The VAPAQ is a reproducible tool to quantify lifetime energy expenditure in older adults with documented vascular disease.

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Baruch Vainshelboim, Zhongming Chen, Ricardo M. Lima and Jonathan Myers

Veterans Exercise Testing Study has been previously described. 28 , 29 In brief, the Veterans Exercise Testing Study cohort is an ongoing, prospective evaluation of primarily male Veterans (96%) referred for exercise testing for clinical reasons, designed to address exercise test, clinical, and lifestyle

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Stephen M. Glass, Christopher K. Rhea, Matthew W. Wittstein, Scott E. Ross, John P. Florian and F.J. Haran

water-based exercise interventions. 24 , 25 In contrast, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-duration exposure to underwater immersion on static, terrestrial postural control in a sample of veteran divers. Two hypotheses were formulated: (1) that a single long-duration exposure

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Katherine S. Hall, Gail M. Crowley, Hayden B. Bosworth, Teresa A. Howard and Miriam C. Morey

The purpose of this study was to examine what happens to goals over the course of a physical activity counseling trial in older veterans. At baseline, participants (N = 313) identified 1 health-related goal and 1 walking goal for their participation in the study and rated where they perceived themselves to be relative to that goal at the current time. They rated their current status on these same goals again at 6 and 12 mo. Growth-curve analyses were used to examine longitudinal change in perceived goal status. Although both the intervention and control groups demonstrated improvement in their perceived proximity to their health-related and walking goals (L = 1.19, p < .001), the rates of change were significantly greater in the intervention group (β = –.30, p < .05). Our results demonstrate that this physical activity counseling intervention had a positive impact on self-selected goals over the course of the intervention.

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Miriam C. Morey, Carola Ekelund, Megan Pearson, Gail Crowley, Matthew Peterson, Richard Sloane, Carl Pieper, Eleanor McConnell and Hayden Bosworth

The authors describe a medical center-based randomized trial aimed at determining the feasibility and effectiveness of partnering patients and primary-care providers with an exercise health counselor. Study participants included 165 veterans age 70 years and older. The primary end point was change in physical activity at 3 and 6 months comparing patients receiving high-intensity physical activity counseling, attention control counseling, and usual care after receiving standardized clinic-based counseling. We noted a significant Group × Time interaction (p = .041) for physical activity frequency and a similar effect for caloric expenditure (p = .054). Participants receiving high-intensity counseling and usual care increased physical activity over the short term, but those with usual care returned to baseline by the end of the study. The intervention was well received by practitioners and patients. We conclude that partnering primary-care providers with specialized exercise counselors for age- and health-appropriate physical activity counseling is effective.