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Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Scott Bonnette and Gregory D. Myer

may overcome the limitations of classical assessments involves simulating sport-specific environments through virtual reality (VR), which can effectively present simulated scenarios that facilitate real-world athletic performance and competition. 16 , 17 VR-based assessments may provide a more

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Katherine L. Hsieh, Yaejin Moon, Vignesh Ramkrishnan, Rama Ratnam and Jacob J. Sosnoff

measure postural stability, such as the functional reach task, 6 trunk sway, 7 and center of pressure (COP) measures (ie, velocity, area). 8 One method of measuring postural stability is determining virtual time to contact (VTC). VTC provides an estimate of how long it would take an individual to lose

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Mariam A. Ameer and Qassim I. Muaidi

specialists who use stretch-induced change to RT to protect patients from losing dynamic balance and decrease the risk of falling. The techniques employed in most of the previous studies lack in emulating real situation while performing measurements. To address this, virtual reality (VR) systems have been

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Anat V. Lubetzky, Bryan D. Hujsak, Gene Fu and Ken Perlin

are limited to the research laboratory setting and cannot be utilized in the clinic. Recent advances in virtual reality (VR) technology such as the Oculus Rift (Oculus VR, LLC; Menlo Park, CA) and the HTC Vive (HTC Corporation, New Taipei City, Taiwan) could potentially help identify movement patterns

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Chih-Hung Chen, Ming-Chang Jeng, Chin-Ping Fung, Ji-Liang Doong and Tien-Yow Chuang

Context:

Whether virtual rehabilitation is beneficial has not been determined.

Objective:

To investigate the psychological benefits of virtual reality in rehabilitation.

Design:

An experimental group underwent therapy with a virtual-reality-based exercise bike, and a control group underwent the therapy without virtual-reality equipment.

Setting:

Hospital laboratory.

Patients:

30 patients suffering from spinal-cord injury.

Intervention:

A designed rehabilitation therapy.

Main Outcome Measures:

Endurance, Borg's rating-of-perceived-exertion scale, the Activation–Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire.

Results:

The differences between the experimental and control groups were significant for AD-ACL calmness and tension.

Conclusion:

A virtual-reality-based rehabilitation program can ease patients' tension and induce calm.

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Kevin R. Ford, Anh-Dung Nguyen, Eric J. Hegedus and Jeffrey B. Taylor

Virtual environments with real-time feedback can simulate extrinsic goals that mimic real life conditions. The purpose was to compare jump performance and biomechanics with a physical overhead goal (POG) and with a virtual overhead goal (VOG). Fourteen female subjects participated (age: 18.8 ± 1.1 years, height: 163.2 ± 8.1 cm, weight 63.0 ± 7.9 kg). Sagittal plane trunk, hip, and knee biomechanics were calculated during the landing and take-off phases of drop vertical jump with different goal conditions. Repeated-measures ANOVAs determined differences between goal conditions. Vertical jump height displacement was not different during VOG compared with POG. Greater hip extensor moment (P < .001*) and hip angular impulse (P < .004*) were found during VOG compared with POG. Subjects landed more erect with less magnitude of trunk flexion (P = .002*) during POG compared with VOG. A virtual target can optimize jump height and promote increased hip moments and trunk flexion. This may be a useful alternative to physical targets to improve performance during certain biomechanical testing, screening, and training conditions.

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Kathryn Mills, Aula Idris, Thu-An Pham, John Porte, Mark Wiggins and Manolya Kavakli

is that these studies used internally focused feedback, that is, participants focused on their knee position. Benjaminse et al 13 argue that this method of feedback may interfere with the natural coordination of the movement and automaticity of the skill. Virtual reality (VR) may be provide a

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Jason P. Mihalik, Luv Kohli and Mary C. Whitton

Context:

Virtual reality environments may allow researchers to investigate functional balance performance without risks associated with testing in the real world.

Objective:

To investigate the effects of the mass of a head-mounted display (HMD) on balance performance.

Design:

Counterbalanced pretest-posttest.

Setting:

Virtual reality laboratory.

Participants:

20 healthy college students.

Intervention(s):

Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) with a tracker-only headband and again with tracker plus HMD was performed.

Main Outcome Measures:

BESS error scores, elliptical sway area, and center of pressure travel distance were recorded.

Results:

No effect of the HMD mass on balance performance was observed. A significant stance by surface interaction was present but was negated when the HMD conditions were included in the model.

Conclusions:

The mass of a HMD has not been proven to adversely affect balance performance. These data suggest the HMD mass is not a contraindication to the use of immersive virtual environments in future concussion research involving balance.

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Jurjen Bosga and Ruud G. J. Meulenbroek

In this study we investigated redundancy control in joint action. Ten participantpairs (dyads) performed a virtual lifting task in which isometric forces needed to be generated with two or four hands. The participants were not allowed to communicate but received continuous visual feedback of their performance. When the task had to be performed with four hands, participants were confronted with a redundant situation and between-hand force synergies could, in principle, be formed. Performance timing, success rates, cross-correlations, and relative phase analyses of the force-time functions were scrutinized to analyze such task-dependent synergies. The results show that even though the dyads performed the task slower and less synchronized in the joint than in the solo conditions, the success rates in these conditions were identical. Moreover, correlation and relative phase analyses demonstrated that, as expected, the dyads formed between-participant synergies that were indicative of force sharing in redundant task conditions.

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Manuel E. Hernandez, Erin O’Donnell, Gioella Chaparro, Roee Holtzer, Meltem Izzetoglu, Brian M. Sandroff and Robert W. Motl

in this aging population. Standard tests of gait function in persons with MS include the timed 25-foot walk, yet increased sensitivity may be achieved through the use of more balance-demanding walking tasks ( Stellmann et al., 2014 ). In this study, we examine virtual beam walking (VBW) tasks on a