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John Stoszkowski and Dave Collins

A reflective approach to practice is consistently espoused as a key tool for understanding and enhancing coach learning and raising the vocational standards of coaches. As such, there is a clear need for practical tools and processes that might facilitate the development and measurement of “appropriate” reflective skills. The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the use of online blogs as a tool to support refection and community of practice in a cohort of undergraduate sports coaching students. Twenty-six students (6 females, 20 males) reflected on their coaching practice via blogs created specifically for refection. Blogs were subjected to category and content analysis to identify the focus of entries and to determine both the emergent reflective quality of posts and the extent to which an online community of practice emerged. Findings revealed that descriptive refection exceeded that of a critical nature, however, bloggers exhibited a positive trajectory toward higher order thinking and blogs were an effective platform for supporting tutor-student interaction. Despite the peer discourse features of blogs, collaborative refection was conspicuous by its absence and an online community of practice did not emerge.

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Marco J. Konings, Jordan Parkinson, Inge Zijdewind and Florentina J. Hettinga

to athletes in competitive sports. 5 Indeed, the presence of a virtual opponent has been shown to improve cycling performance, 6 – 8 and the pacing behavior of the virtual opponent has been shown to affect the initial pace of cyclists in laboratory-controlled conditions. 7 The performance

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Alba Reguant-Closa, Margaret M. Harris, Tim G. Lohman and Nanna L. Meyer

and macronutrients to body mass (BM), weight categories were defined by gender (60 kg females [f] and 75 kg males [m]). Each sport dietitian created 18 plates. To avoid food waste, half of the plates were created “virtually” on paper, whereas the other half were created with food. For the virtual

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Gunnar Treff, Kay Winkert, Katja Machus and Jürgen M. Steinacker

based on the criteria that would normally cause TERM auto , when activated. The virtual test duration at TERM auto was compared with the actual test duration after TERM exhaust . Metabolic Analysis Gas exchange and ventilation were measured with a Metamax 3x (Cortex Biophysics, Leipzig, Germany) to

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Bart Roelands and Kevin De Pauw

. Artificial intelligence experts have been working on the implementation of virtual-, augmented-, and mixed-reality sessions into the microcycle planning of athletes. These strategies seemed science fiction only a few years ago but are now being used in tactical training sessions. The integration of

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Margaret T. Harris and Mike Metzler

through state and district virtual schools ( Gemin et al., 2015 ). In the 2015–2016 school year, over two million K-12 students took online courses and completed over four million courses ( Gemin & Pape, 2016 ). Hundreds of thousands of K-12 students attend full-time online schools, and many students are

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Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore and Kevin G. Thompson

, appears the most effective form of deception to elicit performance improvements. 5 In performance deception trials, athletes have raced against a virtual on-screen pacer whom they believed was programmed to mimic mean power output (MPO) from their previous best performance. In reality, the pacer was

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Luca Filipas, Emiliano Nerli Ballati, Matteo Bonato, Antonio La Torre and Maria Francesca Piacentini

the other athletes. Renfree et al 31 have highlighted how the behavior of an athlete can influence the pacing strategy of all the others. Specifically, Konings et al 32 reported how pacing behavior is altered depending on the pacing profile of a virtual opponent. In this case, in fact, the decision

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Brian D. Dauenhauer, Xiaofen D. Keating and Dolly Lambdin

have been utilized to assist with the electronic collection of assessment data ( Cummiskey, 2011 ; Gubacs-Collins & Juniu, 2009 ; Nye, 2010 ; Wegis & van der Mars, 2006 ). Data management systems such as PE Manager (Polar, Inc.; http://education.polarusa.com ), Virtual PE Administrator (Great

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

of pacing behavior. 2 , 4 As shown before in observational and experimental studies, an opponent could be such an affordance, inviting exercisers to adjust their pacing behavior. 4 – 6 For example, the presence of a virtual opponent has been revealed to improve performance. 5 , 7 – 9 Moreover