The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting brand awareness of virtual advertising in sports. Specifically, the study tested the effects of animation, repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification. An experiment using two Latin square designs was conducted to assess the effects of these factors on awareness levels. Results indicated no effect of animation, while effects of repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification were found to affect viewers’ cognitive responses. Managerial implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.
Yosuke Tsuji, Gregg Bennett and James H. Leigh
Lane Wakefield and Gregg Bennett
Virtual fan communities (VFC) have become very popular among fans of sports teams. A VFC provides an online place for fans to meet and discuss the team, consume media, and develop friendships. Students will learn, in this case study, how to use partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to assess fan attitudes toward the VFC and sponsors of the firm. Students will also learn how sport organizations can benefit from leadership with statistical know-how. The case is fictional, but it is based on an actual research study conducted in conjunction with a prominent virtual fan community in which ownership had an interest in fans’ attitudes toward their service.
David Rolfe and Steve Dittmore
Traditional sports ticket sales have followed a basic model of tickets in exchange for cash or credit. In an evolving and competitive market, sports marketing professionals must adapt and consider alternate forms of ticket sales. This case study follows Julie Lin, the director of ticket sales for a fictional National Hockey League expansion team, the Seattle Salmon. In an effort to align with the strategic vision of being considered a highly innovative sports franchise, Lin is considering accepting Bitcoin, a virtual currency, as a form of payment. Considered a “cryptocurrency,” Bitcoin is awarded through the solving of complex computer riddles, is devoid of a physical form, has no government or regulatory body backing it, and has value based largely on speculation. Bitcoin has found popularity and legitimacy among technology companies and companies considered to be innovative. At the present time, three professional sports accept Bitcoin for the purchase of tickets. This case will follow Lin and her exploration of Bitcoin within her franchise. Readers will consider positive and negative aspects of Bitcoin in a sports ticketing environment, and ultimately present an educated and data-driven recommendation regarding the details of this case.
David Pierce, Melissa Davies and Bryan Kryder
). Empathy forces students to set aside preconceptions and assumptions about the way a product or service works and instead challenges them to innovate in line with what users want and need (“ The Virtual Crash,” 2018 ). Going to where users are to understand what they say and do forms the basis for
learning. The fourth question in the physical space section of the survey was different for both classes. For Gender and Sport, a specific question was asked about the virtual learning space as it was a hybrid course. The Sport and Society instrument, without this additional space aspect, included a more
David Pierce and James Johnson
sports information was the second most Artistic occupation and significantly more Artistic than six occupations. It is also important to note the virtual tie between the Enterprising and Conventional environments, which means that the three-letter code for sports information could just as reasonably be
Craig A. Morehead, Brendan O’Hallarn and Stephen L. Shapiro
The Internet has drastically changed how society seeks and consumes information. One influential change in the communication process is the widespread use—and perhaps abuse—of user-generated content. If provided a frame of reference to help direct the discussion, such as a news story, comment functions can act as a proxy “town hall” in a virtual setting. Unique to this cyber town hall, however, is the sense of anonymity that leads some users to post content they would not normally voice in a public context. This investigation intertwines uses-and-gratifications theory and online disinhibition effect by analyzing anonymous-comment postings on a newspaper Web site. Seven newspaper stories on the campus master plan and football-stadium proposal at Old Dominion University demonstrate the sociological underpinnings where sports, education, economics, and politics intersect in an anonymous forum where users can relay their opinion on the subject while remaining invisible and unidentified.
Yongjae Kim and Stephen Ross
This study examined the impact of repetitive sport video gaming on sport brand attitudes, attitude strength (e.g., attitude accessibility and confidence), and the attitude-behavior relationship. An experiment was designed to demonstrate the attitude-behavior consistency in a hypothetical choice context. The results indicated that repeated exposure to sport video games emulating a real-life sport influences sport attitude and its strength, and subsequently hypothetical choice behavior. The sport attitudes formed on virtual sport experience (e.g., playing sport video games repetitively) are as accessible and held with the same degree of confidence as those formed on direct experience (e.g., watching a sport on TV). The findings also confirmed the moderating effect of attitude confidence on the attitude-behavior relationship.
This exploratory research investigation focused on the concept of human extensibility and sought to introduce the topic to the sport management literature. The purpose of this inquiry on human extensibility centered on attempting to better understand how professionalized sport facilities embrace communication technology to help virtual and remote spectators become extensible agents. The space-time path of both a high and low-identified sport fan was tracked through the creation of a Geographic Information System (GIS) based model to help explain the extensibility phenomenon. The GIS-based diagrams were established with the help of data collected from a space-time diary, video camera, and participant interviews. Professionalized sport facilities enjoy the space and ability to incorporate highly technical structures within their confines to help improve human extensibility, however, people must possess the resources (i.e., time and money), desire, and knowledge to exploit the technology. The researcher suggests future producers of sport products will benefit both publicly and financially with this emphasis. Finally, this research endeavor offers further discussion and predictions on newer technology emerging that professionalized sport facilities will or should likely embrace in the future to improve extensibility for all types of fans and to create, maintain, and/or secure greater fan identification.
Yongjin Hwang, Khalid Ballouli, Kevin So and Bob Heere
, whether through static advertisements, product placement, or auditory mentions ( Walsh et al., 2013 ). The least intrusive and most frequently used form of IGA is the static advertisement, particularly the virtual billboard ( King, Delfabbro, & Griffiths, 2010 ). There are growing numbers of brands that