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Marco J. Konings, Jordan Parkinson, Inge Zijdewind, and Florentina J. Hettinga

to athletes in competitive sports. 5 Indeed, the presence of a virtual opponent has been shown to improve cycling performance, 6 – 8 and the pacing behavior of the virtual opponent has been shown to affect the initial pace of cyclists in laboratory-controlled conditions. 7 The performance

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Alba Reguant-Closa, Margaret M. Harris, Tim G. Lohman, and Nanna L. Meyer

and macronutrients to body mass (BM), weight categories were defined by gender (60 kg females [f] and 75 kg males [m]). Each sport dietitian created 18 plates. To avoid food waste, half of the plates were created “virtually” on paper, whereas the other half were created with food. For the virtual

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Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore, and Kevin G. Thompson

, appears the most effective form of deception to elicit performance improvements. 5 In performance deception trials, athletes have raced against a virtual on-screen pacer whom they believed was programmed to mimic mean power output (MPO) from their previous best performance. In reality, the pacer was

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Luca Filipas, Emiliano Nerli Ballati, Matteo Bonato, Antonio La Torre, and Maria Francesca Piacentini

the other athletes. Renfree et al 31 have highlighted how the behavior of an athlete can influence the pacing strategy of all the others. Specifically, Konings et al 32 reported how pacing behavior is altered depending on the pacing profile of a virtual opponent. In this case, in fact, the decision

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco, and Alfred Nimmerichter

pedal force at the start of each TT. To replicate real-world TT cycling, participants consequently used a self-pacing strategy where gearing was adjusted throughout efforts using the virtual gear changer mounted to the handlebars. Feedback over elapsed time and strong encouragement were provided

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Mostafa Zarei, Hamed Abbasi, Abdolhamid Daneshjoo, Mehdi Gheitasi, Kamran Johari, Oliver Faude, Nikki Rommers, and Roland Rössler

12. Donath L , Rössler R , Faude O . Effects of virtual reality training (exergaming) compared to alternative exercise training and passive control on standing balance and functional mobility in healthy community-dwelling seniors: a meta-analytical review . Sports Med . 2016 ; 46 ( 9

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Gerda Strutzenberger, Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Hans von Lieres und Wilkau, John D. Davies, Steffen Willwacher, Johannes Funken, Ralf Müller, Kai Heinrich, Hermann Schwameder, Wolfgang Potthast, and Gareth Irwin

, a virtual toe marker was created half-way between the 2 RSP markers. Step length and width were identified using the toe markers. Step frequency of the first step was calculated as 1/(first stance contact time + flight time) and step velocity as the product of step frequency and step length. Kinetic

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Pål Haugnes, Jan Kocbach, Harri Luchsinger, Gertjan Ettema, and Øyvind Sandbakk

298 m. The maximal difference in elevation was 29 m with a total climb of 55 m per lap. The time each skier spent in a section was calculated based on virtual split times. Section speed was calculated by dividing the length of a section by the section time of the skiers. The Gar-920XT has recently

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Pål Haugnes, Per-Øyvind Torvik, Gertjan Ettema, Jan Kocbach, and Øyvind Sandbakk

6), according to terrain topography (Figure  1 ). The maximal difference in elevation was 24 m with a total climb of 38 m for the entire course. The time each skier spent in a section was calculated based on virtual split times. Speed for each section was calculated by dividing the length of a