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  • Athletic Training, Therapy, and Rehabilitation x
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Mariam A. Ameer and Qassim I. Muaidi

specialists who use stretch-induced change to RT to protect patients from losing dynamic balance and decrease the risk of falling. The techniques employed in most of the previous studies lack in emulating real situation while performing measurements. To address this, virtual reality (VR) systems have been

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Chih-Hung Chen, Ming-Chang Jeng, Chin-Ping Fung, Ji-Liang Doong and Tien-Yow Chuang

Context:

Whether virtual rehabilitation is beneficial has not been determined.

Objective:

To investigate the psychological benefits of virtual reality in rehabilitation.

Design:

An experimental group underwent therapy with a virtual-reality-based exercise bike, and a control group underwent the therapy without virtual-reality equipment.

Setting:

Hospital laboratory.

Patients:

30 patients suffering from spinal-cord injury.

Intervention:

A designed rehabilitation therapy.

Main Outcome Measures:

Endurance, Borg's rating-of-perceived-exertion scale, the Activation–Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire.

Results:

The differences between the experimental and control groups were significant for AD-ACL calmness and tension.

Conclusion:

A virtual-reality-based rehabilitation program can ease patients' tension and induce calm.

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Kathryn Mills, Aula Idris, Thu-An Pham, John Porte, Mark Wiggins and Manolya Kavakli

is that these studies used internally focused feedback, that is, participants focused on their knee position. Benjaminse et al 13 argue that this method of feedback may interfere with the natural coordination of the movement and automaticity of the skill. Virtual reality (VR) may be provide a

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Jason P. Mihalik, Luv Kohli and Mary C. Whitton

Context:

Virtual reality environments may allow researchers to investigate functional balance performance without risks associated with testing in the real world.

Objective:

To investigate the effects of the mass of a head-mounted display (HMD) on balance performance.

Design:

Counterbalanced pretest-posttest.

Setting:

Virtual reality laboratory.

Participants:

20 healthy college students.

Intervention(s):

Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) with a tracker-only headband and again with tracker plus HMD was performed.

Main Outcome Measures:

BESS error scores, elliptical sway area, and center of pressure travel distance were recorded.

Results:

No effect of the HMD mass on balance performance was observed. A significant stance by surface interaction was present but was negated when the HMD conditions were included in the model.

Conclusions:

The mass of a HMD has not been proven to adversely affect balance performance. These data suggest the HMD mass is not a contraindication to the use of immersive virtual environments in future concussion research involving balance.

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Anat V. Lubetzky, Daphna Harel, Helene Darmanin and Ken Perlin

normal and abnormal responses to changing visual cues with eyes open in situations relevant to daily living ( Jeka et al., 2006 ). In the past few years, there have been substantial advancements in virtual reality (VR) technology. The ability to carefully manipulate visual environments has become simpler

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Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Scott Bonnette and Gregory D. Myer

may overcome the limitations of classical assessments involves simulating sport-specific environments through virtual reality (VR), which can effectively present simulated scenarios that facilitate real-world athletic performance and competition. 16 , 17 VR-based assessments may provide a more

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Dustin R. Grooms, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Jonathan D. Ellis, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Christopher A. DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Brooke Gadd, Kim D. Barber Foss, Weihong Yuan, Paula Silva, Ryan Galloway, Jed A. Diekfuss, James Leach, Kate Berz and Gregory D. Myer

the perceptual-motor and neurocognitive challenges of interacting with a dynamic athletic environment. The advent of virtual reality (VR) technologies provides a means to overcome this limitation to assess motor pattern transfer to sport. VR allows athletes to be immersed in environments that mimic

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Marie-Jasmine Lalonde-Parsi and Anouk Lamontagne

Whether a reduced perception of self-motion contributes to poor walking speed adaptations in older adults is unknown. In this study, speed discrimination thresholds (perceptual task) and walking speed adaptations (walking task) were compared between young (19–27 years) and young-old individuals (63–74 years), and the relationship between the performance on the two tasks was examined. Participants were evaluated while viewing a virtual corridor in a helmet-mounted display. Speed discrimination thresholds were determined using a staircase procedure. Walking speed modulation was assessed on a self-paced treadmill while exposed to different self-motion speeds ranging from 0.25 to 2 times the participants’ comfortable speed. For each speed, participants were instructed to match the self-motion speed described by the moving corridor. On the walking task, participants displayed smaller walking speed errors at comfortable walking speeds compared with slower of faster speeds. The young-old adults presented larger speed discrimination thresholds (perceptual experiment) and larger walking speed errors (walking experiment) compared with young adults. Larger walking speed errors were associated with higher discrimination thresholds. The enhanced performance on the walking task at comfortable speed suggests that intersensory calibration processes are influenced by experience, hence optimized for frequently encountered conditions. The altered performance of the young-old adults on the perceptual and walking tasks, as well as the relationship observed between the two tasks, suggest that a poor perception of visual motion information may contribute to the poor walking speed adaptations that arise with aging.

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Anat V. Lubetzky, Bryan D. Hujsak, Gene Fu and Ken Perlin

are limited to the research laboratory setting and cannot be utilized in the clinic. Recent advances in virtual reality (VR) technology such as the Oculus Rift (Oculus VR, LLC; Menlo Park, CA) and the HTC Vive (HTC Corporation, New Taipei City, Taiwan) could potentially help identify movement patterns

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John Goetschius, Mark A. Feger, Jay Hertel and Joseph M. Hart

Posture . 2010 ; 32 ( 1 ): 82 – 86 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.03.015 20418101 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.03.015 3. Teel EF , Slobounov SM . Validation of a virtual reality balance module for use in clinical concussion assessment and management . Clin J Sport Med . 2015 ; 25 ( 2 ): 144