, DeMartelaer, Samaey, & Andries, 2008 ), which was the original intent of its developers ( Ulrich, 1985 , 2000 ). Given the frequency and severity of gross motor delays for individuals with visual impairments ( Haegele, Brian, & Goodway, 2015 ; Haibach, Wagner, & Lieberman, 2014 ; Houwen, Hartman
Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley and Sara Santarossa
Justin A. Haegele and T. Nicole Kirk
physical education, such as poorly trained teachers and paraeducators, a lack of support, and a lack of adapted equipment ( Perkins, Columna, Lieberman, & Bailey, 2013 ). Because of these factors, differences between youth with visual impairments and others tend to be emphasized during physical education
Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele
used in adapted physical activity research examining physical activity among individuals with disabilities ( Cervantes & Porretta, 2010 ; Leung, Siebert, & Yun, 2017 ), including those with visual impairments ( Ayvazoglu, Oh, & Kozub, 2006 ; Brian et al., 2019 ; Cervantes & Porretta, 2013 ; Haegele
Justin A. Haegele, Takahiro Sato, Xihe Zhu and T. Nicole Kirk
In recent years, several studies have explored the experiential perspectives of youth with visual impairments (i.e., those with low vision and complete blindness) toward their physical education experiences ( de Schipper, Lieberman, & Moody, 2017 ; Haegele, Sato, Zhu, & Avery, 2017 ; Haegele
Luis Columna, Denzil A. Streete, Samuel R. Hodge, Suzanna Rocco Dillon, Beth Myers, Michael L. Norris, Tiago V. Barreira and Kevin S. Heffernan
Prevention, 2016 ). Unfortunately, children with visual impairments (VI), that is, those who are blind or who have low vision, are not meeting national guidelines for PA and tend to be more sedentary than their peers without disabilities ( Kozub & Oh, 2004 ). Due to limited PA opportunities and inactivity
Soubhagyalaxmi Mohanty, Balaram Pradhan and Alex Hankey
, 2011 ; D’souza & Avadhany, 2014 ; Purohit, Pradhan, & Nagendra, 2016 ; Telles, Singh, Bhardwaj, Kumar, & Balkrishna, 2013 ). The previous evidence suggests that yoga-based health promotion programs showed positive improvement in children without visual impairment (VI) and may also bring improvements
Ali Brian, An De Meester, Aija Klavina, J. Megan Irwin, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell and Lauren J. Lieberman
literacy, there has been little attention to the physical literacy journeys of populations of individuals with visual impairments (VIs). Within the components of Dudley’s ( 2015 ) observational model of physical literacy, some evidence exists regarding the competence and confidence of children with VI
Kate A.T. Eddy and Stephen D. Mellalieu
The purpose of this study was to investigate imagery experiences in performers with visual impairments. Structured, in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with six elite goalball athletes regarding the processing and use of mental images in training and competition. Interview transcripts were analyzed using deductive and inductive procedures and revealed four general dimensions describing the athletes’ uses of imagery. Participants reported using imagery for cognitive and motivational purposes in both training and competition. Imagery was also suggested to be utilized from an internal perspective with the processing of images derived from a range of modalities. The findings suggest that visual impairment does not restrict the ability to use mental imagery and that psychological interventions can be expanded to include the use of all the athletes’ sensory modalities.
Steve Skaggs and Chris Hopper
The present paper is a review of the psychomotor abilities of individuals with visual impairments. It was found that cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, flexibility, and balance were significantly lower in individuals with visual impairments than in individuals with nonimpaired sight. Differences were found in physical fitness and psychomotor skills among individuals with visual impairments. Those individuals with a later onset of blindness and greater visual acuity performed best. Segregated environments appeared to foster superior physical fitness and psychomotor skills compared to integrated environments. Findings indicated that some physical fitness evaluation instruments produce inaccurate results in testing individuals with visual impairments. Suggestions for future research are included.
Michael W. Beets, John T. Foley, Daniel W.S. Tindall and Lauren J. Lieberman
Thirty-five youth with visual impairments (13.5 ± 2.1yrs, 13 girls and 22 boys) walked four 100-meter distances while wearing two units (right and left placement) of three brands of voice-announcement (VA) pedometers (CentriosTM Talking Pedometer, TALKiNG Pedometer, and Sportline Talking Calorie Pedometer 343) and a reference pedometer (NL2000). Registered pedometer steps for each trial were recorded, compared to actual steps assessed via digital video. Inter-unit agreement between right and left VA pedometer placement was low (ICC range .37 to .76). A systematic error was observed for the VA pedometers on the left placement (error range 5.6% to 12.2%), while right placement VA pedometers were at or below ± 3% from actual steps (range 2.1% to 3.3%). The reference pedometer was unaffected by placement (ICC .98, error ~1.4%). Overall, VA pedometers demonstrated acceptable accuracy for the right placement, suggesting this position is necessary for youth with visual impairments.