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Madeleine E. Hackney, Courtney D. Hall, Katharina V. Echt and Steven L. Wolf

Evidence-based recommendations for interventions to reduce fall risk in older adults with visual impairment are lacking. Adapted tango dance (Tango) and a balance and mobility program (FallProof) have improved mobility, balance, and quality of life (QOL) in individuals with movement impairment. This study compared the efficacy of Tango and FallProof for 32 individuals with visual impairment (age: M = 79.3, SD =11 [51–95 years]). Participants were assigned to Tango or FallProof to complete twenty, 90-min lessons within 12 weeks. Participants underwent assessment of balance, dual-tasking, endurance, gait, and vision-related QOL. The balance reactions of participants in both groups improved (p < .001). Endurance, cognitive dual-tasking, and vision-related QOL may have improved more for Tango than FallProof. Group differences and gains were maintained across time. Both programs could be effective options for motor rehabilitation for older adults with visual impairment because they may improve mobility and QOL while reducing fall risk.

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Meridith Griffin, Brett Smith, P. David Howe and Cassandra Phoenix

In this paper we present a scoping review of literature on aging, visual impairment, and physical activity. Our objectives are to: (a) explore the available literature on aging, physical activity, and sight loss; (b) describe how participation in physical activity by older adults with visual impairment is understood by researchers; and, (c) identify benefits, barriers, and facilitators of physical activity participation as reported by older adults with age-related sight loss. Over 2,000 sources were reviewed, with 30 studies meeting eligibility criteria. Findings were organized into four thematic categories, namely: (a) participation rates; (b) health inequalities; (c) barriers to physical activity participation; and, (d) benefits of physical activity participation. Through this scoping review process, extant knowledge was synthesized and gaps in the literature were critically assessed. To address these gaps, several avenues for future research are outlined and described, alongside a consideration of the implications of the scoping review findings for both policy and practice.

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Luis Columna, Margarita Fernández-Vivó, Lauren Lieberman and Katrina Arndt

Background:

Nationwide research indicates that children with visual impairment have limited participation in recreational and sport activities than their peers. This is due in part to the lack of recreational opportunities and facilities, as well as a lack of awareness by parents of how and where their children can participate. The purpose of the current study was to explore the experiences of Latino families of children with visual impairments living in Guatemala regarding physical recreation. Participants were Latino parents (N = 13) who have children with visual impairments recruited from a sport camp.

Methods:

Qualitative data were gathered through one-on-one interviews that were transcribed and analyzed through a constant comparative analysis.

Results:

Participating Latino families who resided in Guatemala City participated at least once a month in low budget recreational activities with their children with visual impairments. Activities were mostly done in local surroundings and led mainly by their mother. Benefits identified by the participants related to relaxation, socialization, and sense of independence, with minimal mention of health related benefits.

Conclusions:

There is a need to disseminate information to the Latino community with children with visual impairments regarding the multiple benefits that arise from being involved in recreational physical activities.

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Christina E. Miyawaki, Rebecca L. Mauldin and Carolyn R. Carman

, Baumgartner, & Garry, 1997 ). Thus, fall prevention is a public health issue not only because of the risk of falls but also because of the risk of injury ( Rubenstein, 2006 ). Visual impairment is one of the factors associated with the risk of falling for older adults ( CDC, 2017 ). As the aging population

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Mats Hallgren, Andreas Lundin, James Mugisha and Ai Koyanagi

, Koyanagi, Thompson, et al., 2016 ). Fall-related injuries in the past 12 months were assessed with questions on the presence of bodily injury and cause ( Stewart Williams et al., 2015 ). The participant was considered to have hearing problems if the interviewer observed this condition. Visual impairment

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Claudine Sherrill

The underrepresentation of women in the Paralympics movement warrants attention as the world prepares for Atlanta 1996, when Paralympics (conducted after the Summer Olympics) will attract approximately 3,500 athletes with physical disability or visual impairment from 102 countries. Barriers that confront women with disability, the Paralympic movement, and adapted physical activity as a profession and scholarly discipline that stresses advocacy and attitude theories are presented. Two theories (reasoned action and contact) that have been tested in various contexts are woven together as an approach particularly applicable to women in sport and feminists who care about equal access to opportunity for all women. Women with disability are a social minority that is both ignored and oppressed. Sport and feminist theory and action should include disability along with gender, race/ethnicity, class, and age as concerns and issues.

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Paul D. Loprinzi and Elizabeth Crush

Objective:

No study has comprehensively examined the independent and combined effects of sensory impairment, physical activity and balance on mortality risk, which was this study’s purpose.

Methods:

Data from the population-based 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used, with follow-up through 2011. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Balance was assessed via the Romberg test. Peripheral neuropathy was assessed objectively using a standard monofilament. Visual impairment was objectively assessed using an autorefractor. Hearing impairment was assessed via self-report. A 5-level index variable (higher score is worse) was calculated based on the participant’s degree of sensory impairment, dysfunctional balance and physical inactivity.

Results:

Among the 1658 participants (age 40–85 yrs), 228 died during the median follow-up period of 92 months. Hearing (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.18; P = .40), vision (HR = 1.17; P = .58) and peripheral neuropathy (HR = 1.06; P = .71) were not independently associated with all-cause mortality, but physical activity (HR = 0.97; P = .01) and functional balance (HR = 0.59; P = .03) were. Compared with those with an index score of 0, the HR (95% CI) for those with an index score of 1 to 3, respectively, were 1.20 (0.46–3.13), 2.63 (1.08–6.40) and 2.88 (1.36–6.06).

Conclusions:

Physical activity and functional balance are independent contributors to survival.

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Amy E. Burton, Louise Clancy and Lisa Cowap

 > or = 75 with severe visual impairment: the VIP trial . BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 331 ( 7520 ), 817 . PubMed doi:10.1136/bmj.38601.447731.55 10.1136/bmj.38601.447731.55 Chen , E.W. , Fu , A.S.N. , Chan , K.M. , & Tsang , W.W.N. ( 2012 ). The effects of Tai Chi on the balance control of

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Andrew G. Wood, Jamie B. Barker, Martin Turner and Peter Thomson

movements. In blind soccer, teams consist of four outfield players with a blind classification and one goalkeeper who can be fully sighted or have a visual impairment. Prescreening procedures confirmed that participants had had no previous psychological support around REBT. Institutional ethical approval

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Oluwaseyi Osho, Oluwatoyosi Owoeye and Susan Armijo-Olivo

) adj3 (place or home))).mp.   15. 13 or 14   16. 5 and 10 and 12 and 15   17. limit 16 to yr = “2005 -Current”   18. (Parkinson* or multiple scleros* or alzheimer* or (cognitiv* impair* not (non-cognitiv* impair* or mild cognitiv* impair*)) or visual* impair*).ti.   19. 17 not 18   CINAHL S1. ((MH