Evidence-based recommendations for interventions to reduce fall risk in older adults with visual impairment are lacking. Adapted tango dance (Tango) and a balance and mobility program (FallProof) have improved mobility, balance, and quality of life (QOL) in individuals with movement impairment. This study compared the efficacy of Tango and FallProof for 32 individuals with visual impairment (age: M = 79.3, SD =11 [51–95 years]). Participants were assigned to Tango or FallProof to complete twenty, 90-min lessons within 12 weeks. Participants underwent assessment of balance, dual-tasking, endurance, gait, and vision-related QOL. The balance reactions of participants in both groups improved (p < .001). Endurance, cognitive dual-tasking, and vision-related QOL may have improved more for Tango than FallProof. Group differences and gains were maintained across time. Both programs could be effective options for motor rehabilitation for older adults with visual impairment because they may improve mobility and QOL while reducing fall risk.
Madeleine E. Hackney, Courtney D. Hall, Katharina V. Echt and Steven L. Wolf
Meridith Griffin, Brett Smith, P. David Howe and Cassandra Phoenix
In this paper we present a scoping review of literature on aging, visual impairment, and physical activity. Our objectives are to: (a) explore the available literature on aging, physical activity, and sight loss; (b) describe how participation in physical activity by older adults with visual impairment is understood by researchers; and, (c) identify benefits, barriers, and facilitators of physical activity participation as reported by older adults with age-related sight loss. Over 2,000 sources were reviewed, with 30 studies meeting eligibility criteria. Findings were organized into four thematic categories, namely: (a) participation rates; (b) health inequalities; (c) barriers to physical activity participation; and, (d) benefits of physical activity participation. Through this scoping review process, extant knowledge was synthesized and gaps in the literature were critically assessed. To address these gaps, several avenues for future research are outlined and described, alongside a consideration of the implications of the scoping review findings for both policy and practice.
Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley and Sara Santarossa
, DeMartelaer, Samaey, & Andries, 2008 ), which was the original intent of its developers ( Ulrich, 1985 , 2000 ). Given the frequency and severity of gross motor delays for individuals with visual impairments ( Haegele, Brian, & Goodway, 2015 ; Haibach, Wagner, & Lieberman, 2014 ; Houwen, Hartman
Justin A. Haegele and T. Nicole Kirk
physical education, such as poorly trained teachers and paraeducators, a lack of support, and a lack of adapted equipment ( Perkins, Columna, Lieberman, & Bailey, 2013 ). Because of these factors, differences between youth with visual impairments and others tend to be emphasized during physical education
Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele
used in adapted physical activity research examining physical activity among individuals with disabilities ( Cervantes & Porretta, 2010 ; Leung, Siebert, & Yun, 2017 ), including those with visual impairments ( Ayvazoglu, Oh, & Kozub, 2006 ; Brian et al., 2019 ; Cervantes & Porretta, 2013 ; Haegele
Justin A. Haegele, Takahiro Sato, Xihe Zhu and T. Nicole Kirk
In recent years, several studies have explored the experiential perspectives of youth with visual impairments (i.e., those with low vision and complete blindness) toward their physical education experiences ( de Schipper, Lieberman, & Moody, 2017 ; Haegele, Sato, Zhu, & Avery, 2017 ; Haegele
Luis Columna, Denzil A. Streete, Samuel R. Hodge, Suzanna Rocco Dillon, Beth Myers, Michael L. Norris, Tiago V. Barreira and Kevin S. Heffernan
Prevention, 2016 ). Unfortunately, children with visual impairments (VI), that is, those who are blind or who have low vision, are not meeting national guidelines for PA and tend to be more sedentary than their peers without disabilities ( Kozub & Oh, 2004 ). Due to limited PA opportunities and inactivity
Soubhagyalaxmi Mohanty, Balaram Pradhan and Alex Hankey
, 2011 ; D’souza & Avadhany, 2014 ; Purohit, Pradhan, & Nagendra, 2016 ; Telles, Singh, Bhardwaj, Kumar, & Balkrishna, 2013 ). The previous evidence suggests that yoga-based health promotion programs showed positive improvement in children without visual impairment (VI) and may also bring improvements
Kate A.T. Eddy and Stephen D. Mellalieu
The purpose of this study was to investigate imagery experiences in performers with visual impairments. Structured, in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with six elite goalball athletes regarding the processing and use of mental images in training and competition. Interview transcripts were analyzed using deductive and inductive procedures and revealed four general dimensions describing the athletes’ uses of imagery. Participants reported using imagery for cognitive and motivational purposes in both training and competition. Imagery was also suggested to be utilized from an internal perspective with the processing of images derived from a range of modalities. The findings suggest that visual impairment does not restrict the ability to use mental imagery and that psychological interventions can be expanded to include the use of all the athletes’ sensory modalities.
Steve Skaggs and Chris Hopper
The present paper is a review of the psychomotor abilities of individuals with visual impairments. It was found that cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, flexibility, and balance were significantly lower in individuals with visual impairments than in individuals with nonimpaired sight. Differences were found in physical fitness and psychomotor skills among individuals with visual impairments. Those individuals with a later onset of blindness and greater visual acuity performed best. Segregated environments appeared to foster superior physical fitness and psychomotor skills compared to integrated environments. Findings indicated that some physical fitness evaluation instruments produce inaccurate results in testing individuals with visual impairments. Suggestions for future research are included.