of MVPA in young and active populations under free-living conditions. Participants wore the accelerometer over the right anterior superior iliac spine for a period of 7 days immediately following the study visit. A valid data collection period was considered to be a minimum of 4 days (3 weekdays and
Christopher Kuenze, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Karin Pfieffer, Stephanie Trigsted, Dane Cook, Caroline Lisee and David Bell
Tina Smith, Sue Reeves, Lewis G. Halsey, Jörg Huber and Jin Luo
weekdays and weekends, a 7-day collection period has been suggested. 44 This is illustrated in the current pedometer datasets where 2 of the higher BMI participants displayed the pattern of engaging in a very large number of steps 1 day/week during the 2-week pedometer data collection period. However to
Heidi I. Stanish
Walking is a common physical activity reported by individuals with mental retardation (MR). This study examined the accuracy and feasibility of pedometers for monitoring walking in 20 adults with MR. Also, step counts and distance walked were recorded for one week. Pedometer counts were highly consistent with actual step counts during normal and fast paced walking on two ground surfaces. Intraclass correlation coefficients were above .95. A t-test revealed no gender differences in walking activity. A 2 × 2 ANOVA indicated that participants with Down Syndrome (DS) accumulated significantly fewer step counts than those without DS and participants walked more on weekdays than weekends.
So-Yeun Kim and Joonkoo Yun
This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way ANOVAs were employed to estimate sources of variability across W, WK, and W and WK combined (WWK) for each device. Primary sources of variability were the person and the person by day interaction for both devices. Using a pedometer, four, six, and eight days of measurements were required to determine typical PA levels of the participants during W, WK, and WWK, respectively. Using one accelerometer, four days of measurements were estimated across all days.
Dawn D. Rosser Sandt and Georgia C. Frey
The purpose of this study was to compare daily, physical education, recess, and after school moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels between children with and without autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Children ages 5 to 12 years wore a uniaxial accelerometer for five days (four weekdays, one weekend day). There were no differences between children with and without ASD at any physical activity setting. Both groups were more active during recess compared to after school, and children with ASD were similarly active in recess and physical education. Although many children with ASD acquired 60 min of physical education per day, this may decrease with age as opportunities for recess and physical education are eliminated.
Freddie Bennett, Pat Eisenman, Ron French, Hester Henderson and Barry Shultz
A single-subject multiple baseline design across subjects was used to discern the effect of a token economy on the exercise behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness of individuals with Down syndrome. The subjects were three females ranging in age from 24 to 26 years, with estimated IQs between 32 and 56. The exercise behavior consisted of pedaling a cycle ergometer for 15 min each weekday at 50-60% of peak VO2 for 6 to 8 weeks. Subjects voluntarily pedaled the cycle ergometer during the baseline phase, and after stabilization entered the intervention phase at 5-day intervals. During the intervention phase, tokens that could be exchanged for preferred items were dispensed for a predetermined number of revolutions. Based on the data and calculations using the split-middle technique, it was concluded that a token economy can be used to increase exercise behavior. Resting heart rates decreased 12.2%, and submaximal exercise heart rates, averaged over three work stages, decreased 18.8% over the course of the study. The small sample size, variable subject response, and a malfunctioning gas analyzer call for caution in inferring any possible cardiorespiratory fitness training effect.
Justin A. Haegele, Carrie J. Aigner and Sean Healy
( 2008 ) PA guidelines. Screen Time To assess ST, parents were asked “On an average weekday, about how much time does this child usually spend in front of a TV watching TV programs, videos, or playing video games?” Potential responses included “none,” “less than 1 hour,” “1 hour,” “2 hours,” “3 hours
Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele
). Weekday physical activity and health-related fitness of youths with visual impairments and those with autism spectrum disorder and visual impairments . Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 112 ( 4 ), 372 – 384 . doi:10.1177/0145482X1811200404 10.1177/0145482X1811200404 Hamilton , K. , Cox , S
Jay Johnson, Michelle D. Guerrero, Margery Holman, Jessica W. Chin and Mary Anne Signer-Kroeker
the evening (59.36%), and both during the day and the evening (33.39%). Hazing behaviors primarily occurred on a weekend free of competition (77.61%) as opposed to on a weekday (12.27%) or on a weekend or weekday in which the team was competing (10.12%). In terms of social media, photos of hazing
Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Chelsee Shortt, Adam Pennell and Ryan Sacko
contacted the parent to either bring the accelerometer to school or make sure their child wore the accelerometer the following day. Any child who did not meet a minimum of three weekdays and one weekend ( Trost, McIver, & Pate, 2005 ) wear time was excluded from the study. Accelerometers were downloaded at