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Wi-Young So

The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior were related to weight status in Korean adolescents. A total of 72,399 students in Grades 7–12 participated in the 5th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBWS-V) project in 2009. Body mass index, PA, and sedentary behavior were assessed by the KYRBWS-V. The study results show that boys had higher PA and less sedentary behavior than did girls (p < .01). The amounts of vigorous PA (p < .001), moderate PA (p < .001), moderate PA for at least 60 min (p < .001), exercise for muscle strength (p < .001), walking on a weekday (p < .001), and walking on a weekend (p = .012) were less in boys who were more obese than the other boys. The time spent sitting on a weekday (p < .001) and weekend (p < .001) was higher in more obese individuals in boys. Exercise for muscle strength (p = .011) was less in girls who were more obese. Time spent sitting on a weekday (p = .005) and weekend (p < .001) was higher in more obese individuals in girls. However, vigorous PA (p < .001), moderate PA (p < .001), moderate PA for at least 60 min (p = .003), and walking on a weekday (p < .001) were higher for the more obese girls. PA and sedentary behavior could be independent factors that reduce or prevent obesity in Korean adolescents.

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Dirk Aerenhouts, Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Jacques Remi Poortmans, Ronald Hauspie and Peter Clarys

This study aimed to estimate nitrogen balance and protein requirements in adolescent sprint athletes as a function of growth rate and physical development. Sixty adolescent sprint athletes were followed up biannually over a 2-yr period. Individual growth curves and age at peak height velocity were determined. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was estimated based on anthropometric measurements and fat mass was estimated by underwater densitometry. Seven-day diet and physical activity diaries were completed to estimate energy balance and protein intake. Nitrogen analysis of 24-hr urine samples collected on 1 weekday and 1 weekend day allowed calculation of nitrogen balance. Body height, weight, and SMM increased throughout the study period in both genders. Mean protein intakes were between 1.4 and 1.6 g kg−1 day−1 in both genders. A protein intake of 1.46 g kg−1 day−1 in girls and 1.35 g kg−1 day−1 in boys was needed to yield a positive nitrogen balance. This did not differ between participants during and after their growth spurt. None of the growth parameters was significantly related to nitrogen balance. It can be concluded that a mean protein intake around 1.5 g kg−1 day−1 was sufficient to stay in a positive nitrogen balance, even during periods of peak growth. Therefore, protein intake should not be enhanced in peak periods of linear or muscular growth.

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Ben T. Stephenson, Eleanor Hynes, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

possible to collect samples from every athlete each week (11–31 samples per athlete). Saliva Collection and Analysis Samples were collected on the same weekday (06:00–08:00 h) every week, before training, 10 minutes after last fluid intake, while fasted and before brushing their teeth. Athletes provided a

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Nessan Costello, Jim McKenna, Louise Sutton, Kevin Deighton and Ben Jones

dietary assessment tool ( Costello et al., 2017a , 2017b ). The 4-day assessment period included two weekdays and two weekend days (Friday to Monday). Data were analyzed using dietary analysis software (Nutritics, version 3.06; Nutritics Ltd, Dublin, Ireland). Pre- and postintervention dietary intakes

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Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mar Larrosa, Aitor Centeno, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao and Diego Moreno-Pérez

intensity by continuous heart rate registration. All the participants trained during the afternoon (12:00–6:00 p.m.). Dietary Monitoring Each participant’s baseline diet (3 days, 2 weekdays, and 1 weekend day) was analyzed using Dietplan 6 software (Microsoft Forestfield Software Ltd.). Participants were

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Aline C. Tritto, Salomão Bueno, Rosa M.P. Rodrigues, Bruno Gualano, Hamilton Roschel and Guilherme G. Artioli

 al., 2010 ). Total training volume was calculated for total load attained in one session (Repetitions × Sets × Load, for bench press and leg press exercises combined) in the Weeks 1, 6, and 12. Food Intake Assessment All participants completed food diaries on three nonconsecutive days (2 weekdays and 1

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Ching T. Lye, Swarup Mukherjee and Stephen F. Burns

Intake, Physical Activity, Alcohol, and Body Mass Food intake was self-recorded over 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day prior to the first trial and during trials on Days 3, 6, and 10 using a diary. Participants curtailed physical activities, beyond those of daily living, for each trial and refrained from

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Sami Yli-Piipari, Arto Gråsten, Mikko Huhtiniemi, Kasper Salin, Sanni Seppälä, Harto Hakonen and Timo Jaakkola

of PA monitoring included the measured values of ≥500 min/day for at least 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. Values over 20,000 counts per minute were ruled out as spurious accelerations ( Heil, Brage, & Rothney, 2012 ). Evenson’s cut points were used to calculate MVPA (≥2,296 counts per minute; Evenson

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Katherine Elizabeth Black, Alistair David Black and Dane Frances Baker

recalls two weekdays, one weekend 15 male U.S. college club rugby Age: 20.3 ± 1.1 years BM: 81 ± 16 kg BMI: 25.7 ± 3.2 kg/m 2 Body fat: 13 ± 5% Not stated 2,378 ± 126 kcal/day ∼9,950 b  kJ/day ∼29.4 kcal·kg −1 ·day −1 ∼122 b  kJ·kg −1 ·day −1 275 g/day 3.4 ± 1.1 g·kg −1 ·day −1 34 ± 3% ∼137.7 b  g/day 1

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Summer Davis, Xihe Zhu and Justin Haegele

). Fitnessgram & activitygram test administration manual ( updated 4th ed. ). Dallas, TX : The Cooper Institute . Yang , D. , Zhu , X. , Haegele , J.A. , Wilson , P.B. , & Wu , X. ( 2019 ). The association between health-related fitness and physical activity during weekdays: Do fit students