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Holly R. Wyatt, Bonnie T. Jortberg, Christine Babbel, Sara Garner, Fang Dong, Gary K. Grunwald and James O. Hill

Background:

This project addresses the need to identify feasible, effective weight-management programs that can be implemented within communities. The controversial role of dairy products in weight-management programs is also explored.

Methods:

The “Calcium Weighs-In” weight-loss program placed equal emphasis on diet and physical activity and was delivered within a community intervention to promote dairy consumption in Calcium, New York. One hundred ninety-nine adults in Calcium, NY, participated in the weight-loss program. Weight loss, increase in dairy intake, increase in steps, decrease in blood pressure, decrease in waist circumference, and decrease in body mass index (BMI) were examined.

Results:

The mean weight loss for 116 subjects who completed the program was 6.0 ± 4.2 kg (mean ± SD, P < .0001) with a percent weight change of 6.4% ± 4.2% (P < .0001). An increase of 3582 ± 4070 steps (P < .0001), as well as an increase of 0.8 ± 1.2 dairy servings (P < .0001) was seen. Higher average dairy consumption was associated with greater weight loss and a greater decrease in waist circumference.

Conclusion:

The results show that effective weight-management programs can be implemented within communities. The results are also consistent with recommendations to include low-fat dairy products and a physical activity component in weight-management programs.

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Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen and Michael Yoerger

criterion targets by self-report and accelerometry, and who were enrolled in a web-based weight loss and weight maintenance clinical trial. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed the baseline data of women who were randomized in the Women Weigh-in for Wellness community-based trial designed to compare

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Daniel M. Landers, Shawn M. Arent and Rafer S. Lutz

Recent research has demonstrated transient affective changes and impairment of short-term memory in college wrestlers as a result of rapid weight loss (RWL) of at least 5% body weight prior to competition. This study examined the effects of RWL on cognition and affect in high school wrestlers. Wrestlers were considered to be engaging in RWL if they were losing over 5% of body weight (n = 14). Those losing less than 1% of body weight (n = 14) were considered maintainers and served as the control group. Both groups were given a battery of tests assessing cognitive performance (Trail Making Tests A & B, Stroop color-word test, Wechsler digit span, and choice reaction/movement time) and affective state (PANAS) at normal weight (5 to 10 days prior to competition) and again 8 to 12 hours prior to weigh-in. Results indicated an average loss of 4.68 kg in the RWL group and 0.29 kg in the control group. A group-by-time MANOVA and univariate follow-up tests indicated a significant group-by-time interaction for positive affect, p < .014, with the RWL wrestlers having less positive affect than the control group just prior to weigh-in. However, none of the cognitive performance tests demonstrated significant differential changes for RWL vs. control groups, p > .10. Given the control for competition effects in the present study, results suggest there are affective disturbances, but not cognitive impairments, associated with RWL of at least 5% body weight in high school wrestlers.

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Tanya McGuane, Stephen Shannon, Lee-Ann Sharp, Martin Dempster and Gavin Breslin

Horse racing requires jockeys to weigh in prior to each competition, with failure automatically excluding the jockey from competition. As such, many jockeys frequently employ long- and short-term “wasting” weight-loss techniques that can be harmful to health. This study aimed to explore jockeys’ social norms and experiences regarding wasting and the effects of wasting on their mental health. Six professional jockeys with a minimum of 2 years professional riding experience were recruited from a range of stud-racing yards in Ireland. From individual participant interviews, an interpretative-phenomenological-analysis approach revealed four themes: “Day in, day out,” “Horse racing is my life,” “You just do what you have to do,” and “This is our world.” Themes were interpreted through social-identity theory, which highlighted how wasting is an acceptable in-group norm among jockeys, irrespective of relationship problems and mental health consequences. Recommendations are offered for intervening to support jockeys’ mental health.

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Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel

: “I don’t see [female skaters] eat much. A lot of rabbit food.” Ron described specific behaviors he has observed in female skaters: “Anything from count calories exactly and only eat certain things to go throw up in the bathroom. Like ‘hey, it’s weigh-in day, and I just ate so I’m going to go throw up

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Florence-Emilie Kinnafick, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Sam O. Shepherd, Oliver J. Wilson, Anton J.M. Wagenmakers and Christopher S. Shaw

weigh in or some kind of assessment so you’ve got more of a, oh I know where I am and actually I’ll get better in the next five weeks. In the past I’ve been weighed every two weeks so I always know where I’m going, or if I’m failing. (Focus group 1) Participants expressed controlled forms of motivation

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

) was assessed using a medical grade Detecto precision scale and height tool at both treatment admission and discharge by an approved staff. Patients were weighed in light clothing and were not informed of their weight. Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO 2 max) measures the amount of oxygen used during

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

approved staff using a medical grade Detecto precision scale and height tool. Participants were weighed in light clothing and were not informed of their weight. Analyses Propensity score matching (PSM; Rosenbaum & Rubin, 1983 ) was used to create a final dataset ( N  = 167) that accounted for the

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Hans C. Schmidt

. The result is a newly confusing landscape for sport media, in which sport reporters—who are experts in game-day coverage and analysis—are also expected to weigh in on political and social issues about which, despite personal knowledge and opinions, they have little professional experience in covering