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Ross E. Andersen and John M. Jakicic

The aim of this review is to provide a scientific update on the current guidelines for both health and weight management. There has been confusion among health professionals as to which physical activity guidelines should be used to help various specific populations adopt more active lifestyles. We first review the history of the physical activity guidelines. Using the physical activity guidelines in clinical practice is also explored. We also describe common barriers to physical that overweight individuals report and we discuss when it is appropriate for a health care professional to seek a referral from an exercise scientist to help sedentary adults increase their levels of activity. It is important for individuals who care for overweight patients and sedentary adults to understand the current physical guidelines and how these guidelines can be worked into clinical practice.

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Kaisu Marjut Kaikkonen, Raija irmeli Korpelainen, Mikko P. Tulppo, Hannu Sakari Kaikkonen, Marja Liisa Vanhala, Mika Antero Kallio, Sirkka M. Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi and Juha Tapani Korpelainen

Background:

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and obesity are intrinsically related to each other. In normal-weight subjects physical activity (PA) and fitness are related to cardiovascular autonomic regulation, providing evidence that aerobic training may improve ANS functioning measured by heart rate variability (HRV). The goal of this study was to investigate the association between lifetime PA, aerobic fitness and HRV in obese adults.

Methods:

Participants included 107 (87 females) volunteers (mean age 44.5 years, median BMI 35.7) who completed health and lifestyle questionnaires and measurements of maximal aerobic performance, anthropometry and 24 h HRV.

Results:

In the multivariate linear regression analyses, lifetime physical activity explained 40% of the variance in normal R-R intervals (SDNN). Each 1-category increase in the activity index increased SDNN by 15.4 (P = .009) and 24% of the variance in natural logarithmic value of ultra-low frequency power (P = .050). High measured VO2max explained 45% of the variance in natural logarithmic value of high-frequency power (P = .009) and 25% of the variance in low frequency/high frequency ratio (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Lifetime physical activity and aerobic fitness may reduce obesity-related health risks by improving the cardiac autonomic function measured by HRV in obese workingage subjects. This research supports the role of lifetime physical activity in weight management strategies and interventions to reduce obesity-related health risks.

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Victoria Anne Catenacci, Lorraine Odgen, Suzanne Phelan, J. Graham Thomas, James Hill, Rena R. Wing and Holly Wyatt

Background:

The National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) was established to examine characteristics of successful weight loss maintainers. This study compares the diet and behavioral characteristics and weight regain trajectories of NWCR members with differing physical activity (PA) levels at baseline.

Methods:

Participants (n = 3591) were divided into 4 levels of self-reported PA at registry entry (< 1000, 1000 to < 2250, 2250 to < 3500, and ≥ 3500 kcals/week). We compared self-reported energy intake (EI), macronutrient composition, eating behaviors (dietary restraint, hunger, and disinhibition), weight loss maintenance strategies, and 3 year weight regain between these 4 activity groups.

Results:

Those with the highest PA at registry entry had lost the most weight, and reported lower fat intake, more dietary restraint, and greater reliance on several specific dietary strategies to maintain weight loss. Those in the lowest PA category maintained weight loss despite low levels of PA and without greater reliance on dietary strategies. There were no differences in odds of weight regain at year 3 between PA groups.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that there is not a “one size fits all strategy” for successful weight loss maintenance and that weight loss maintenance may require the use of more strategies by some individuals than others.

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Erik A. Willis, Amanda N. Szabo-Reed, Lauren T. Ptomey, Jeffery J. Honas, Felicia L. Steger, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

HIFT is a popular form of exercise, there is limited research regarding HIFT 17 , 18 and it is not commonly endorsed as a mode of meeting recommended physical activity levels or for weight management. This may be partially due to lack of information in the literature regarding objectively measured

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Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, Richard F. MacLehose, Allison W. Watts, Marla E. Eisenberg, Melissa N. Laska and Nicole Larson

Obesity in young adults is of public health concern, given its high prevalence and potential adverse health consequences. 1 – 3 Innovative strategies are needed that are widely acceptable and effective in long-term weight management. 4 Given that some research suggests that overweight individuals

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Emily L. Mailey, Deirdre Dlugonski, Wei-Wen Hsu and Michelle Segar

included the following 6 subscales from the EMI-2: stress management, revitalization, ill health avoidance, positive health, weight management, and appearance. The enjoyment subscale was initially included but was ultimately omitted because it overlapped significantly with the revitalization subscale. For

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Krista Schroeder, Martha Y. Kubik, Jiwoo Lee, John R. Sirard and Jayne A. Fulkerson

August 2014 to 2018 as part of the Students, Nurses, and Parents Seeking Healthy Options Together study, a randomized controlled trial of an elementary school-based healthy weight management intervention set in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area targeting 8- to 12-year-old children. Eligibility

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Sarah G. Sanders, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Natalie H. Cole, Alena Kuhlemeier, Grace L. McCauley, M. Lee Van Horn and Alberta S. Kong

reported, resulting in widely varying estimates of average daily MVPA. 8 – 13 The objective of this study is to describe the PA levels measured by wrist accelerometer in a group of 930 adolescents at baseline of an obesity prevention and weight management cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial in

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Craig Donnachie, Kate Hunt, Nanette Mutrie, Jason M.R. Gill and Paul Kelly

PAL3 ™ ) and self-report (International Physical Activity Questionnaire; IPAQ, Short Form) PA measures to detect changes in PA behavior, using data collected before and after participation in the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) program, a weight management and healthy lifestyle intervention for men

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Holly R. Wyatt, Bonnie T. Jortberg, Christine Babbel, Sara Garner, Fang Dong, Gary K. Grunwald and James O. Hill

Background:

This project addresses the need to identify feasible, effective weight-management programs that can be implemented within communities. The controversial role of dairy products in weight-management programs is also explored.

Methods:

The “Calcium Weighs-In” weight-loss program placed equal emphasis on diet and physical activity and was delivered within a community intervention to promote dairy consumption in Calcium, New York. One hundred ninety-nine adults in Calcium, NY, participated in the weight-loss program. Weight loss, increase in dairy intake, increase in steps, decrease in blood pressure, decrease in waist circumference, and decrease in body mass index (BMI) were examined.

Results:

The mean weight loss for 116 subjects who completed the program was 6.0 ± 4.2 kg (mean ± SD, P < .0001) with a percent weight change of 6.4% ± 4.2% (P < .0001). An increase of 3582 ± 4070 steps (P < .0001), as well as an increase of 0.8 ± 1.2 dairy servings (P < .0001) was seen. Higher average dairy consumption was associated with greater weight loss and a greater decrease in waist circumference.

Conclusion:

The results show that effective weight-management programs can be implemented within communities. The results are also consistent with recommendations to include low-fat dairy products and a physical activity component in weight-management programs.