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Dong-Sung Choi, Hwang-Jae Lee, Yong-II Shin, Ahee Lee, Hee-Goo Kim and Yun-Hee Kim

Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been used to increase muscle strength 1 , 2 and muscle activation 3 , 4 and to improve muscle architectural properties, 5 gait ability, 6 and muscle oxygenation. 7 In addition, vibration has shown many positive effects on the human body in rehabilitation and

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Karinna Sonálya Aires da Costa, Daniel Tezoni Borges, Liane de Brito Macedo, Caio Alano de Almeida Lins and Jamilson Simões Brasileiro

. 3 In this case, the return to functional activity is strongly correlated with the ability of the quadriceps femoris muscles to generate. 3 Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been increasingly used in rehabilitation of these patients. These devices produce constant vibrations creating symmetrical waves

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Dana M. Otzel, Chris J. Hass, Erik A. Wikstrom, Mark D. Bishop, Paul A. Borsa and Mark D. Tillman

return to preinjury activity levels, not all sensorimotor deficits may be vanquished using these techniques. 2 Whole-body vibration (WBV) could potentially address the neurophysiologic deficits accompanied by CAI including deficits in strength, proprioception, postural control, and reflex activity. WBV

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Tülay Çevik Saldıran, Emine Atıcı, Derya Azim Rezaei, Özgül Öztürk, Burcu Uslu, Burcu Ateş Özcan and Begüm Okudan

researches, it was observed that the effects of exercise training on flexibility, muscle strength, or performance were provided by whole-body vibration (WBV) training alone. 6 , 7 It was dynamometrically 8 and electromyographically shown 9 that WBV provides an increase in muscle strength, 10 flexibility

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Heon-Jeong Kim and Bernard J. Martin

Simulation of human movements is an essential component for proactive ergonomic analysis and biomechanical model development (Chaffin, 2001). Most studies on reach kinematics have described human movements in a static environment, however the models derived from these studies cannot be applied to the analysis of human reach movements in vibratory environments such as in-vehicle operations. This study analyzes three-dimensional joint kinematics of the upper extremity in reach movements performed in static and specific vibratory conditions and investigates vibration transmission to shoulder, elbow, and hand along the body path during pointing tasks. Thirteen seated subjects performed reach movements to five target directions distributed in their right hemisphere. The results show similarities in the characteristics of movement patterns and reach trajectories of upper body segments for static and dynamic environments. In addition, vibration transmission through upper body segments is affected by vibration frequency, direction, and location of the target to be reached. Similarities in the pattern of movement trajectories revealed by filtering vibration-induced oscillations indicate that coordination strategy may not be drastically different in static and vibratory environments. This finding may facilitate the development of active biodynamic models to predict human performance and behavior under whole body vibration exposure.

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Megan N. Houston, Victoria E. Hodson, Kelda K.E. Adams and Johanna M. Hoch

Clinical Scenario:

Hamstring tightness is common among physically active individuals. In addition to limiting range of motion and increasing the risk of muscle strain, hamstring tightness contributes to a variety of orthopedic conditions. Therefore, clinicians continue to identify effective methods to increase flexibility. Although hamstring tightness is typically treated with common stretching techniques such as static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, it has been suggested that whole-body-vibration (WBV) training may improve hamstring flexibility.

Clinical Question:

Can WBV training, used in isolation or in combination with common stretching protocols or exercise, improve hamstring flexibility in physically active young adults?

Summary of Key Findings:

Of the included studies, 4 demonstrated statistically significant improvements in hamstring flexibility in the intervention group, and 1 study found minor improvements over time in the intervention group after treatment.

Clinical Bottom Line:

There is moderate evidence to support the use of WBV training to improve hamstring flexibility in physically active young adults.

Strength of Recommendation:

There is grade B evidence that WBV training improves hamstring flexibility in physically active adults. The Centre of Evidence Based Medicine recommends a grade of B for level 2 evidence with consistent findings.

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Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi, Hadi Karimi-Zarchi, Zahra Fakhari and Scott Hasson

Context:

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a type of weight-bearing exercise used in the field of sport and rehabilitation. There is no study on the effects of WBV on muscle recovery after a fatiguing activity.

Objective:

To determine the effects of a single WBV session on lower-extremity fatigue.

Design:

Randomized controlled pilot study.

Setting:

University Physiotherapy Clinic.

Subjects:

A total of 13 healthy young men volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned into the WBV group (n = 7, mean age: 21 y) or control group (CG; n = 6, mean age: 20 y).

Intervention:

Subjects in the WBV group participated in a single-session WBV (30 Hz, amplitude 4 mm, 2 min) after lower-extremity fatigue.

Main Outcome Measures:

Peak force of quadriceps muscle, single leg hop test, and Y-test were measured before inducing muscle fatigue (T0), immediately after completing the fatigue protocol (T1), after WBV (T2), and 15 min following the application of WBV (T3). The same method was applied in the CG while the WBV machine was turned off.

Results:

Repeated-measure ANOVA revealed no significant differences between groups in any of the outcomes.

Conclusions:

The findings indicated that WBV was not effective in the recovery of lower-extremity fatigue in healthy young men.

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D. Clark Dickin and Jacqueline E. Heath

Whole body vibration (WBV) has been shown to improve force and power output as well as flexibility and speed, with improvements suggested to result from reduced electromechanical delays, improved rate of force development, and sensitivity of muscle spindles. Fixed frequency studies on postural control have been somewhat equivocal; however, individualized frequency protocols have shown promising results in other motor tasks. To assess this, 18 healthy young adults experienced three 4-minute WBV sessions with postural control assessed before vibration, after multiple exposures, and during recovery, with altered levels of sensory information available to the participants. Sway velocity, sway path length, and sway area were assessed in each environment. Study findings revealed that stability was impacted following WBV, with more challenging environments eliciting improvements persisting for 20 minutes. When the environment was less challenging, postural stability was impaired; however, the effects dissipated quickly (10-20 min). It was determined that exposure to individualized frequency WBV served to impair postural control when the challenge was low, but resulted in heightened stability when the overall challenge was high and vestibular information was needed for stability.

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Ronald Davis, Charlotte Sanborn, David Nichols, David M. Bazett-Jones and Eric L. Dugan

Bone mineral density (BMD) loss is a medical concern for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Concerns related to osteoporosis have lead researchers to use various interventions to address BMD loss within this population. Whole body vibration (WBV) has been reported to improve BMD for postmenopausal women and suggested for SCI. The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of WBV on BMD for an individual with SCI. There were three progressive phases (standing only, partial standing, and combined stand with vibration), each lasting 10 weeks. Using the least significant change calculation, significant positive changes in BMD were reported at the trunk (0.46 g/cm2) and spine (.093 g/cm2) for phase 3 only. Increases in leg lean tissue mass and reduction in total body fat were noted in all three phases.

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Morteza Ahmadi, Giti Torkaman, Sedigheh Kahrizi, Mojdeh Ghabaee and Leila Dadashi Arani

Context:

Despite the widespread use of whole-body vibration (WBV), especially in recent years, its neurophysiological mechanism is still unclear and it is yet to be determined whether acute and short-term WBV exposure produce neurogenic enhancement for agility.

Objective:

To compare the acute and short-term effects of WBV on the H-reflex-recruitment curve and agility.

Design:

Cross-over study.

Setting:

Clinical electrophysiology laboratory.

Participants:

20 nonathlete male volunteers (mean age 24.85 ± 3.03 y).

Main Outcome Measures:

Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups, H-reflex and agility. In the sham protocol, subjects stood on the turned-off vibration plate while maintaining the semisquat position, and then, after a 2-wk washout, vibration-training sessions were performed in the same position with a frequency of 30 Hz and an amplitude of 3 mm. H-reflex-recruitment curve was recorded and the agility test of a shuttle run was performed before and after the first session and also 48 h after the 11th session in both sham and vibration-training protocols.

Results:

Acute effects of WBV training caused a significant decrease of threshold amplitude and H-max/M-max (P = .01 and P = .04, respectively). Short-term WBV training significantly decreased the threshold intensity of the soleus H-reflex-recruitment curve (P = .01) and caused a decrease and increase respectively, in the threshold intensity and the area under the recruitment curve.

Conclusions:

The results suggest an inhibitory effect of acute WBV training on the H-reflex response.