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Gregory Severino, Marcos Sanchez-Gonzalez, Michelle Walters-Edwards, Michael Nordvall, Oksana Chernykh, Jason Adames and Alexei Wong

postmenopausal women have difficulty adhering to traditional exercise programs and/or may stop exercising altogether ( Guérin & Fortier, 2012 ; O’Neill & Reid, 1991 ). It is crucial to address these barriers by implementing novel modalities such as whole-body vibration training (WBVT). WBVT has been used as an

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Borja Muniz-Pardos, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alex González-Agüero, Alba Gómez-Cabello, José A. Casajús and Germán Vicente-Rodríguez

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is an oscillatory training method widely used in sports centers. 1 This protocol has been described as the sinusoidal oscillations produced by industrial machines which are transmitted to the human body, enhancing the tonic vibration reflex that stimulates reflex muscle

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Nuttaset Manimmanakorn, Jenny J. Ross, Apiwan Manimmanakorn, Samuel J.E. Lucas and Michael J. Hamlin

Purpose:

To compare whole-body vibration (WBV) with traditional recovery protocols after a high-intensity training bout.

Methods:

In a randomized crossover study, 16 athletes performed 6 × 30-s Wingate sprints before completing either an active recovery (10 min of cycling and stretching) or WBV for 10 min in a series of exercises on a vibration platform. Muscle hemodynamics (assessed via near-infrared spectroscopy) were measured before and during exercise and into the 10-min recovery period. Blood lactate concentration, vertical jump, quadriceps strength, flexibility, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), muscle soreness, and performance during a single 30-s Wingate test were assessed at baseline and 30 and 60 min postexercise. A subset of participants (n = 6) completed a 3rd identical trial (1 wk later) using a passive 10-min recovery period (sitting).

Results:

There were no clear effects between the recovery protocols for blood lactate concentration, quadriceps strength, jump height, flexibility, RPE, muscle soreness, or single Wingate performance across all measured recovery time points. However, the WBV recovery protocol substantially increased the tissue-oxygenation index compared with the active (11.2% ± 2.4% [mean ± 95% CI], effect size [ES] = 3.1, and –7.3% ± 4.1%, ES = –2.1 for the 10 min postexercise and postrecovery, respectively) and passive recovery conditions (4.1% ± 2.2%, ES = 1.3, 10 min postexercise only).

Conclusion:

Although WBV during recovery increased muscle oxygenation, it had little effect in improving subsequent performance compared with a normal active recovery.

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Francisco Alvarez-Barbosa, Jesús del Pozo-Cruz, Borja del Pozo-Cruz, Antonio García-Hermoso and Rosa María Alfonso-Rosa

poorer mobility and balance compared with older people still living in the community ( Nitz & Josephson, 2011 ). Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as an easy and safe alternative to conventional exercise for frail people, because it minimizes the need for conscious exertion and stress on the

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Heon-Jeong Kim and Bernard J. Martin

Simulation of human movements is an essential component for proactive ergonomic analysis and biomechanical model development (Chaffin, 2001). Most studies on reach kinematics have described human movements in a static environment, however the models derived from these studies cannot be applied to the analysis of human reach movements in vibratory environments such as in-vehicle operations. This study analyzes three-dimensional joint kinematics of the upper extremity in reach movements performed in static and specific vibratory conditions and investigates vibration transmission to shoulder, elbow, and hand along the body path during pointing tasks. Thirteen seated subjects performed reach movements to five target directions distributed in their right hemisphere. The results show similarities in the characteristics of movement patterns and reach trajectories of upper body segments for static and dynamic environments. In addition, vibration transmission through upper body segments is affected by vibration frequency, direction, and location of the target to be reached. Similarities in the pattern of movement trajectories revealed by filtering vibration-induced oscillations indicate that coordination strategy may not be drastically different in static and vibratory environments. This finding may facilitate the development of active biodynamic models to predict human performance and behavior under whole body vibration exposure.

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Bent R. Rønnestad, Gunnar Slettaløkken Falch and Stian Ellefsen

Postactivation-potentiation exercise with added whole-body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as a potential way to acutely improve sprint performance. In cycling, there are many competitions and situations where sprinting abilities are important.

Purpose:

To investigate the effect of adding WBV to warm-up procedures on subsequent cycle sprint performance.

Methods:

Eleven well-trained cyclists participated in the study. All cyclists performed a familiarization session before 2 separate test sessions in randomized order. Each session included a standardized warm-up followed by 1 of the following preconditioning exercises: 30 s of half-squats without WBV or 30 s of half-squats with WBV at 40 Hz. A 15-s Wingate sprint was performed 1 min after the preconditioning exercise.

Results:

Performing preconditioning exercise with WBV at 40 Hz resulted in superior peak power output compared with preconditioning exercise without WBV (1413 ± 257 W vs 1353 ± 213 W, P = .04) and a tendency toward superior mean power output during a 15-second all-out sprint (850 ± 119 W vs 828 ± 101 W, P = .08). Effect sizes showed a moderate practical effect of WBV vs no WBV on both peak and mean power output.

Conclusions:

Preconditioning exercise performed with WBV at 40 Hz seems to have a positive effect on cycling sprint performance in young well-trained cyclists. This suggests that athletes can incorporate body-loaded squats with WBV in preparations to specific sprint training to improve the quality of the sprint training and also to improve sprint performance in relevant competitions.

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D. Clark Dickin and Jacqueline E. Heath

Whole body vibration (WBV) has been shown to improve force and power output as well as flexibility and speed, with improvements suggested to result from reduced electromechanical delays, improved rate of force development, and sensitivity of muscle spindles. Fixed frequency studies on postural control have been somewhat equivocal; however, individualized frequency protocols have shown promising results in other motor tasks. To assess this, 18 healthy young adults experienced three 4-minute WBV sessions with postural control assessed before vibration, after multiple exposures, and during recovery, with altered levels of sensory information available to the participants. Sway velocity, sway path length, and sway area were assessed in each environment. Study findings revealed that stability was impacted following WBV, with more challenging environments eliciting improvements persisting for 20 minutes. When the environment was less challenging, postural stability was impaired; however, the effects dissipated quickly (10-20 min). It was determined that exposure to individualized frequency WBV served to impair postural control when the challenge was low, but resulted in heightened stability when the overall challenge was high and vestibular information was needed for stability.

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Derek T. Smith, Stacey Judge, Ashley Malone, Rebecca C. Moynes, Jason Conviser and James S. Skinner

Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22–51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P < .001), with no changes in control and PP. Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy.

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Seong-won Han, Dae-yeon Lee, Dong-Sung Choi, Boram Han, Jin-Sun Kim and Hae-Dong Lee

This study aimed to examine whether muscle force and tendon stiffness in a muscle-tendon complex alter synchronously following 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training in older people. Forty older women aged 65 years and older were randomly assigned into control (CON, n = 15) and whole-body vibration (WBV) training groups (exposure time, n = 13; vibration intensity, n = 12). For the training groups, a 4-week detraining period was completed following the training period. Throughout the training/detraining period, force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and stiffness of the Achilles tendon were assessed four times (0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks) using a combined system of dynamometer and ultrasonography. While muscle force gradually increased throughout the training period (p < .05), a significant increase in tendon stiffness was observed after 8 weeks (p < .05). These findings indicated that, during the early phase of WBV training, muscle force and tendon stiffness changed asynchronously, which might be a factor in possible musculotendinous injuries.

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Ronald Davis, Charlotte Sanborn, David Nichols, David M. Bazett-Jones and Eric L. Dugan

Bone mineral density (BMD) loss is a medical concern for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Concerns related to osteoporosis have lead researchers to use various interventions to address BMD loss within this population. Whole body vibration (WBV) has been reported to improve BMD for postmenopausal women and suggested for SCI. The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of WBV on BMD for an individual with SCI. There were three progressive phases (standing only, partial standing, and combined stand with vibration), each lasting 10 weeks. Using the least significant change calculation, significant positive changes in BMD were reported at the trunk (0.46 g/cm2) and spine (.093 g/cm2) for phase 3 only. Increases in leg lean tissue mass and reduction in total body fat were noted in all three phases.