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Irena Auersperger, Bojan Knap, Ales Jerin, Rok Blagus, Mitja Lainscak, Milan Skitek and Branko Skof

Exercise-associated iron deficiency is a common disorder in endurance athletes. The authors investigated the effects of long-term endurance exercise on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in moderately trained female long-distance runners. Eighteen runners were assigned to either an interval- or a continuous-training exercise group. The physical training consisted of two 3-week progressive overload periods, each followed by a week’s recovery, and concluded with a 10- or 21-km competitive run. Samples were taken 6 times during the 8-wk training program, first at baseline (BPre), then after the first and second 3-wk training loads (TPost1, TPost2), after each recovery week (Recovery1 and Recovery2), and poststudy (BPost). Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations were increased in Recovery2 and BPost compared with BPre (p = .02), hemoglobin decreased in TPost1 and TPost2 (p < .001), and red blood cells decreased in TPost2 (p = .01). Hepcidin decreased with time in TPost1 and in BPost compared with BPre (p < .001) and increased in TPost2 compared with TPost1 (p < .001). No differences over time were found for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The main findings of the current study indicate that serum hepcidin and sTfR were affected after 8 weeks of endurance running in women. No positive relation was found with inflammation.

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Justin J. Merrigan, James J. Tufano, Jonathan M. Oliver, Jason B. White, Jennifer B. Fields and Margaret T. Jones

Purpose: To examine rest redistribution (RR) effects on back squat kinetics and kinematics in resistance-trained women. Methods: Twelve women from strength and college sports (5.0 [2.2] y training history) participated in the randomized crossover design study with 72 hours between sessions (3 total). Participants completed 4 sets of 10 repetitions using traditional sets (120-s interset rest) and RR (30-s intraset rest in the middle of each set; 90-s interset rest) with 70% of their 1-repetition maximum. Kinetics and kinematics were sampled via force plate and 4 linear position transducers. The greatest value of repetitions 1 to 3 (peak repetition) was used to calculate percentage loss, [(repetition 10–peak repetition)/(peak repetition) × 100], and maintenance, {100–[(set mean–peak repetition)/(peak repetition)] × 100}, of velocity and power for each set. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for analyses (P < .05). Results: Mean and peak force did not differ between conditions. A condition × repetition interaction existed for peak power (P = .049) but not for peak velocity (P = .110). Peak power was greater in repetitions 7 to 9 (P < .05; d = 1.12–1.27) during RR. The percentage loss of velocity (95% confidence interval, –0.22% to –7.22%; P = .039) and power (95% confidence interval, –1.53% to –7.87%; P = .008) were reduced in RR. Mean velocity maintenance of sets 3 (P = .036; d = 1.90) and 4 (P = .015; d = 2.30) and mean power maintenance of set 4 (P = .006; d = 2.65) were greater in RR. Conclusion: By redistributing a portion of long interset rest into the middle of a set, velocity and power were better maintained. Therefore, redistributing rest may be beneficial for reducing fatigue in resistance-trained women.

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Ross Tucker and Malcolm Collins

The division of athletes into male and female categories for competition is a widely accepted practice and is ordinarily straightforward, requiring no intervention from authorities. However, for reasons ranging from deliberate cheating to complex medical conditions resulting in ambiguous development of sex organs, the controversy of sex verification in athletic events has existed for 70 years. Testing procedures, initially implemented to prevent cheating by men masquerading as women, have produced humiliating outcomes for women athletes who were often for the first time confronted with the possibility that they have one of the disorders of sex development. Sporting authorities have and continue to formulate position stands for the management of such cases. An important missing component in this debate is the sound scientific evidence to determine (a) whether a performance advantage actually exists and (b) how large it might be. The division of competition into separate categories and the large difference in sporting performance between male and female necessitate that sport-governing bodies define the boundaries between the sexes in a just and fair manner for all participating athletes. This review will therefore provide the historical context of the debate and aim to discuss relevant physiological and performance aspects of the sex verification process.

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Iñigo Mujika and Ritva S. Taipale

, 22 women. As I look back on my career in sport physiology, I realize that I have often had the opportunity to work with elite women athletes. Indeed, my very first scientific article as a PhD student reported, “The subjects of this study were 18 national and international level swimmers, 10 males and

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Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay and Karen Hind

weight in the 24 hr before weigh-in. One third ( n  = 9) of women athletes reported missing three or more consecutive menstrual cycles within the last 12 months. To determine whether sex or competition level effected reported weight lost, controlling for age, %total weight loss, %weight lost in the final

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Hermann Zbinden-Foncea, Isabel Rada, Jesus Gomez, Marco Kokaly, Trent Stellingwerff, Louise Deldicque and Luis Peñailillo

Sports Exerc . 2010 ; 42 ( 7 ): 1375 – 1387 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181cabbd8 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181cabbd8 20019636 5. Astorino TA , Matera AJ , Basinger J , Evans M , Schurman T , Marquez R . Effects of Red Bull energy drink on repeated sprint performance in women athletes

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Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ann E. Swanson and Matthew T. Wittbrodt

. This sparked an ongoing debate 6 , 7 ; specifically, will women athletes surpass men, particularly as distance increases in sports where greater inherent body fatness poses less of a disadvantage? The performance gap (ie, % sex difference) currently appears relatively stable for international distance

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Mayur K. Ranchordas, George King, Mitchell Russell, Anthony Lynn and Mark Russell

.1139/apnm-2014-0268 10.1139/apnm-2014-0268 Astorino , T.A. , Matera , A.J. , Basinger , J. , Evans , M. , Schurman , T. , & Marquez , R. ( 2012 ). Effects of red bull energy drink on repeated sprint performance in women athletes . Amino Acids, 42 ( 5 ), 1803 – 1808 . PubMed ID: 21461905

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Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Amador García-Ramos, Victor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Juan A. Párraga-Montilla, José A. Morcillo-Losa, Pierre Samozino and Jean-Benoît Morin

and futsal competitions are becoming increasingly popular, with important national and international tournaments played all around the world. However, very little research has been conducted with women athletes as compared with their male counterparts. In the present study, we aimed to describe and

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Laura E. Juliff, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Shona L. Halson

.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.08.022 24. Pierce D , Kupprat I , Harry D . Urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in women athletes during training and competition . Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol . 1976 ; 36 ( 1 ): 1 – 6 . doi:10.1007/BF00421628 1001312 10.1007/BF00421628 25. Elloumi M