In 2002, Ty Votaw, then commissioner of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA), introduced a marketing plan called the Five Points of Celebrity, which included performance, approachability, passion and joy, appearance, and relevance. Votaw endorsed the Five Points of Celebrity as a way for women golfers to succeed in a competitive sports and entertainment marketplace. Rhetorical criticism of the Five Points of Celebrity using the framework of gender as performance reveals the underlying homophobic notions of the plan. First, Votaw presents the plan as a way to cater to what fans in a sports and entertainment marketplace desire. Second, the plan supports athletes’ displaying femininity to compensate for displaying traditionally masculine characteristics while participating in sport. Third, presentation of femininity emerges as a concomitant presentation of heterosexuality to subvert the “image problem” of LPGA of athletes being perceived as lesbians.
Adam Cohen, E. Nicole Melton and Jon Welty Peachey
The genuine sport of quidditch, based off the Harry Potter franchise, offers an alternative to traditional sport that has grown immensely in terms of popularity and participation. Due to the scarcity of research on coed sports, and the innovative nature of quidditch, the purpose of this research was to use an exploratory qualitative approach to examine impact of the sport on its participants, and to determine how its structure influenced participants’ attitudes toward the opposite gender. Findings revealed the coed structure of the sport led to a positive coed experience for women and men, which in turn developed an increased desire for inclusivity and equality. In addition, both genders reported stereotype reduction due to participation in the sport, and women also reported feeling increased levels of self-confidence and pride. Despite these shifts in attitude, underlying prejudice toward women athletes was still apparent among men who participated in the sport.
Gregory A. Cranmer, Maria Brann and Nicholas D. Bowman
Previous studies have suggested that media reify frames that subtly enforce sex differences in a manner that detracts from women athletes’ athleticism. This phenomenon is referred to as ambivalence. To analyze ambivalence, this study introduces a theoretically and empirically supported coding scheme that was used to conduct a quantitative frame analysis of 157 images featured in ESPN’s The Body Issue. These images were coded for frames that de-emphasize athleticism, sexualize athletes, or deny a sporting context. Results suggest that athlete sex is associated with de-emphasized athleticism and sexualized frames, and sport gender is associated with context frames. Results also support longitudinal trends in The Body Issue series, which suggest that the series has become more sexualized and removed from a sports context but has decreased the use of frames that de-emphasize athleticism. In general, The Body Issue continues to reinforce established media trends that trivialize female athletes, despite claiming to do the opposite.
Emma Kavanagh, Chelsea Litchfield and Jaquelyn Osborne
examining female athletes represented in online and social media is an emerging area of inquiry. Recent studies have investigated women’s self-representations in social media spaces (see Toffoletti & Thorpe, 2018 ; Reichart Smith & Sanderson, 2015 ), representations of women athletes during major events
Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham
/us/2011/04/25/enhancedespnw-web-site-for-female-athletes-and-fans-debuts-april-26/ Mathesen , H. , & Flatten , K. ( 1996 ). Newspaper representation of women athletes in 1984 and 1994 . Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 5 ( 2 ), 65 – 83 . doi:10.1123/wspaj.5.2.65 10.1123/wspaj.5
Calvin Nite and Marvin Washington
, how sport institutions attempt to address and incorporate LGBQT concerns in sport, cultural sensitive issues such as mascot names and dress (can women athletes wear hijabs or not), or the appropriate use of social media. Future research could look at how institutional actors work to address issues