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Yassine Negra, Helmi Chaabene, Senda Sammoud, Olaf Prieske, Jason Moran, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Ali Nejmaoui and Urs Granacher

In elite soccer players, both young and old, physical qualities, such as sprinting, jumping, and change of direction (CoD) speed, are major determinants of performance. 1 Indeed, previous studies have demonstrated that elite soccer players are characterized by high levels of muscular strength

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, João Ribeiro, Francisco Alves, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ludovic Seifert and Ricardo J. Fernandes

, & Portus, 2012 ). In swimming, some studies looked for the most important performance determinants, but no consensus exists when considering young swimmers. In fact, when analyzing young swimmers’ performance, the growth process should be considered ( Douda, Toubekis, Georgiou, Gourgoulis, & Tokmakidis

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Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer and Mario Thevis

314,602 young female athletes ( 14 ). The large number of young female football players demonstrates the need of appropriate training and nutrition guidelines for athletic performance, growth, and development ( 20 , 47 ). Currently, specific nutrient recommendations for youth athletes are

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Irene Muir, Krista J. Munroe-Chandler and Todd Loughead

existing dance-imagery literature. Findings related to who, where, what, and why young dancers image are highlighted. The revised model recognizes that the individual (who) can influence imagery use and its effectiveness (e.g., age, gender, competitive level). Generally, dancers from various levels and

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Lauren A. Burt, David A. Greene and Geraldine A. Naughton

, previous studies have focused on the influence of prolonged high-impact loading on the growing skeleton, particularly in highly competitive and elite female gymnasts ( 1 , 7 ). However, the benefits of recreational gymnastics have also been extensively investigated among young females ( 11 , 22 ). Less

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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

is fundamental to ongoing participation in track-and-field events. Responsibility for the provision of appropriate nutrition care to young, female, and/or masters athletes is shared among the sport’s leaders, coaches, parents, teachers, and the athletes themselves. This review incorporates aspects of

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, Sara Morais, João P. Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J. Fernandes and Ludovic Seifert

swimmers should keep stable along the event. Thus, the constraint-led approach could be particularly meaningful for young swimmers who have not yet stabilized a certain stroke frequency and upper-limb coordination pattern, notably due to changes in strength and body size with age. In fact, changes in

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Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith and Luciano Sales Prado

. This investigation extends these findings to the context of long-distance (1500 m) swimming. The findings of this study are important for coaches and professionals who are responsible for the planning and execution of training programs, particularly those involving young, school-aged athletes. Youth

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Janice L. Thompson

Very little is known about the energy needs of young athletes. Recent studies using the doubly labeled water method have shown that the recommended dietary allowances for energy may be too high for normally active children and adolescents living in affluent societies. No studies of energy balance in young athletes have been published. Self-report dietary records of young athletes indicate that energy, carbohydrate, and select micronutrient intakes of certain athletic groups and individual athletes may be marginal or inadequate. Potential consequences of inadequate energy and nutrient intakes in young athletes include poor bone health, fatigue, limited recovery from injuries, menstrual dysfunction in female athletes, and poor performance. Studies of energy balance and nutrient status in young athletes are needed to better understand the nutritional needs of this group.

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Dalia Mickeviciene, Renata Rutkauskaite, Dovile Valanciene, Diana Karanauskiene, Marius Brazaitis and Albertas Skurvydas

 al., 2011 ; Wolpert & Flanagan, 2016 ), it remains to be determined whether the time course of fast learning differs between children, young adults, and the older adults. It is well known that compared with young adults, children have lower and more variable motor and cognitive performance capacities