al., 2000 ). “Sensory reweighting” was demonstrated by a decreased entrainment to a visual stimulus ( Hwang et al., 2014 ) when healthy young adults were presented with an increased amplitude of that stimulus. Peterka ( 2002 ) found that, unlike healthy adults, patients with bilateral vestibular loss did
Anat V. Lubetzky, Daphna Harel, Helene Darmanin and Ken Perlin
James Hackney, Jade McFarland, David Smith and Clinton Wallis
extremity reaching task in 250 repetitions. Emken and Reinkensmeyer ( 2005 ) found that for walking under novel inertial conditions, healthy, young adults could recover their previous walking kinematic leg patterns in 7.3 ± 2.1 steps. However, we were able to find little published research describing how
Jonathan S. Goodwin, Robert A. Creighton, Brian G. Pietrosimone, Jeffery T. Spang and J. Troy Blackburn
effective in younger individuals who more commonly experience traumatic cartilage injuries as a consequence of greater physical activity exposure and sport participation. Gait biomechanics in healthy, young adults are likely a better representation of individuals who sustain traumatic cartilage injuries but
Jacqueline Phillips, Kelly Cheever, Jamie McKeon and Ryan Tierney
of nose) for testing could influence NPC scores in a healthy, physically active, young adult population. Methods Participants Twenty subjects, who signed consent forms approved by the institutional review board of Temple University, were recruited to participate in the study (males = 13, females = 7
Danielle L. Gyemi, Charles Kahelin, Nicole C. George and David M. Andrews
segmenting DXA scans using custom regions of interest is a reliable method for estimating tissue masses of the upper and lower extremities in young adults 12 ; good within-analyst reliability has also been established for the tissue masses of the core body segments. 13 However, the feasibility of
Nicholas D. Parr, Chris J. Hass and Mark D. Tillman
Cellular phone texting has become increasingly popular, raising the risk of distraction-related injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare alterations in gait parameters during normal gait as opposed to walking while texting. Thirty able-bodied young adults (age = 20 ± 2 y, height = 171 ± 40 cm, mass = 61.7 ± 11.2 kg) who reported texting on a regular basis were tested using an 11-camera optical motion capture system as they walked across an 8 m, obstacle-free floor. A reduction in velocity (P < .05) was seen along with additional significant changes in spatial and temporal parameters. Specifically, step width and double stance time increased, while toe clearance, step length, and cadence decreased. Although many of the changes in spatial and temporal parameters generally accompany slowed gait, the complex distraction task used here may have amplified these potentially deleterious effects. The combination of the slower gait velocity and decrease in attention to the surrounding environment suggests that an individual who is texting while walking could be at a greater risk of injury. Tripping injuries while texting could be more likely due to the decreased toe clearance. In addition, increased step width may increase the likelihood of stepping on an unstable surface or colliding with obstacles in close proximity.
Cédrick T. Bonnet
in healthy young adults to test the functionality of the VOR. Indeed, we could only identify studies testing the VOR in patients (mainly with vestibular problems), older adults, and healthy children. In these studies, the participants performed a quiet stance task and a test in a rotational chair
Tishya A. L. Wren and Jack R. Engsberg
The traditional method for normalizing quantitative strength data is to divide force or torque by body mass. We have previously shown that this method is not appropriate for able-bodied children and young adults and that normalization using allometric scaling is more effective. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of applying existing normalization equations for lower extremity strength to children, adolescents, and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and, if appropriate, to develop CP-specific normalization equations using allometric scaling. We measured the maximum torque generated during hip abduction/adduction, knee extension/flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion in 96 subjects with spastic diplegia CP ages 4–23 years. Traditional mass normalization (Torque/Mass1.0) and allometric scaling equations from children without disability (Torque/Mass1.6 for hip and knee; Torque/Mass1.4 for ankle) were not effective in eliminating the influence of body mass. Normalization using CP-specific allometric scaling equations was effective using both muscle-specific and common (Torque/Mass0.8 for ankle plantar flexors; Torque/Mass1.4 for all others) scaling relationships. For the first time, normalization equations have been presented with demonstrated effectiveness in adjusting strength measures for body size in a group of children, adolescents, and young adults with CP.
Michael F. Joseph, Jeffrey M. Anderson, Thomas H. Trojian and John Crowley
Achilles tendon rupture is often the result of a long-term degenerative process, frequently occurring asymptomatically.
To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic Achilles tendinopathy in an active, asymptomatic, young-adult population and to compare these findings across gender.
Convenience sample, cohort study.
A sample of 52 (28 male, 24 female) healthy, active subjects were recruited from the student body at the University of Connecticut. Images of 104 Achilles tendons were made.
Ultrasound images made with a Phillips HD11 with a 15-MHz real-time linear-array transducer were collected on both the longitudinal and transverse axes of the Achilles tendon. Activity level was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF).
Main Outcome Measure:
Presence of ultrasound evidence of Achilles tendinopathy as agreed on by 2 blinded assessors highly skilled in ultrasonography.
More subjects were categorized as highly active (57.4%) on the IPAQ-SF than moderately active (42.6%). One female and one male subject were found to have ultrasound evidence of asymptomatic Achilles tendinopathy, equaling 3.8% prevalence in this study.
We found a low prevalence of asymptomatic Achilles tendinopathy in an active, young-adult population. Further work is necessary to identify an optimal group warranting ultrasound screening for asymptomatic tendinopathy.
Ana Marie Varela and Kenneth H. Pitetti
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the reflexive HR responses of 10 young adults (mean age = 18.6 ± 3 years) with Down syndrome (DS) to short, intense field tests, and (b) to compare the HR responses of the subjects in this study to previous studies that reported peak HR responses of young adults with DS during maximal treadmill exercise tests. Each subject performed a 300-yd (274-m) run and the Leger and Lambert shuttle run twice on separate days. Heart rates were recorded by telemetry every 50 yd (45.7 m) during the 300-yd run and every minute for the shuttle run. The mean HRs seen throughout both field tests were equal to or higher than peak HRs previously reported. The peak HRs observed were 10 to 30 bpm higher than those peak HRs previously reported for persons with DS of similar age during a maximal treadmill exercise test. The results of this study suggest that low peak HRs may not be specific or unique to the condition of DS.