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Constance Georgiou, Nancy Betts, Terri Hoos and Marty Glenn

Health experts recommend merging a healthy diet and adequate physical activity into one behavior. This study compared attitudes about foods, recent dietary changes, and food choices of 319 18- to 24-year-olds, who defined themselves as exercisers or nonexercisers. Subjects were recruited by telephone and were mailed questionnaires that asked about factors influencing food selection and changes in intake of high-fat foods. Exercisers considered it more important to eat nutritious foods; ate more nutrient-dense, low-fat foods; and more frequently met the Food Guide Pyramid recommended grain and fruit intakes than nonexercisers. Female exercisers more often perceived foods high in calcium to be fattening and not healthful, and they reported decreasing their intake of high-fat foods more than did female nonexercisers. Some merging of healthy diet and exercise behavior is evident among the young adult exercisers in this study. Nutrition and exercise messages targeted to young women should emphasize low-calorie calcium sources.

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Ryan P. Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J. Grosicki, Nicole D. Bolter, C. Matthew Lee and James R. Bagley

gut microbiota composition (F/B) and VO 2 max, body composition, or dietary intake among healthy young adults in a free-living environment. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by San Francisco State University’s Institutional

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Nancy Clark

After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs at the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to eat well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight.

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Sara López-Martínez, Mairena Sánchez-López, Montserrat Solera-Martinez, Natalia Arias-Palencia, Rosa M. Fuentes-Chacón and Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno

Purpose:

Our objective was to analyze the association between different intensities of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults.

Methods:

Cross-sectional study including 275 university students, 18–30 years old, from Cuenca, Spain. We evaluated (a) physical activity using accelerometry, (b) aerobic capacity (VO2max), and (c) muscle strength, by a muscle strength index calculated as the sum of the standardized z score of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing broad jump. An MS index was estimated by summing standardized z scores of waist circumference, ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein, mean arterial blood pressure, and HOMA-IR.

Results:

The mean scores of MS index and HOMAIR were significantly higher and the VO2max significantly lower for individuals who did not perform 20 min or more per week of vigorous physical activity. However, those who performed 250 min/week of moderate physical activity showed no significant differences in either VO2max or the MS index when compared with individuals who did not perform this level of activity. The MS index was lower in those with medium-high levels of aerobic capacity. In addition, individuals with medium-high levels of muscular fitness showed lower waist circumference and a lower MS index.

Conclusions:

VO2max and muscle strength are negatively associated with metabolic risk. 20-min/week of vigorous physical activity was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in young adults; moderate physical activity did not show association with lower cardiometabolic risk.

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Ana Marie Varela and Kenneth H. Pitetti

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the reflexive HR responses of 10 young adults (mean age = 18.6 ± 3 years) with Down syndrome (DS) to short, intense field tests, and (b) to compare the HR responses of the subjects in this study to previous studies that reported peak HR responses of young adults with DS during maximal treadmill exercise tests. Each subject performed a 300-yd (274-m) run and the Leger and Lambert shuttle run twice on separate days. Heart rates were recorded by telemetry every 50 yd (45.7 m) during the 300-yd run and every minute for the shuttle run. The mean HRs seen throughout both field tests were equal to or higher than peak HRs previously reported. The peak HRs observed were 10 to 30 bpm higher than those peak HRs previously reported for persons with DS of similar age during a maximal treadmill exercise test. The results of this study suggest that low peak HRs may not be specific or unique to the condition of DS.

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Kerri M. Winters-Stone and Christine M. Snow

We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to determine whether 1 year of supplemental calcium intake would augment hip [greater trochanter, GT, femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH)], spine (LS), and femoral mid-shaft (Fmr) BMD in female distance runners. Twenty-three women (age: 23.7 ± 4.7 yrs, height: 165.6 ± 6.3 cm, weight: 55.7 ± 6.1 kg) were randomly assigned to receive either 1000 mg/d of supplemental calcium (N = 13) or placebo tablets (N = 10) for 1 year. BMD was determined by DXA (Hologic 1000-W) and tablet compliance by self-report logs. Compliance averaged 79% and 71% for supplement and placebo groups, respectively. Calcium supplementation did not affect hip or spine BMD, but did prevent loss at the femoral mid-shaft (GT: –0.5% vs. 0.2%, FN: 0.9% vs. 1.1%, TH: –0.3% vs. 0.2%, LS: 0.3% vs. 1.2%, Fmr: 0.1% vs. –1.8%, for calcium vs. placebo, respectively). We conclude that the addition of 800 mg/d of supplemental calcium to the diet of young adult female distance runners with habitual calcium intakes of ~1000 mg/d, prevents cortical but not trabecular bone loss.

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Darren G. Candow, Natalie C. Burke, T. Smith-Palmer and Darren G. Burke

The purpose was to compare changes in lean tissue mass, strength, and myof-brillar protein catabolism resulting from combining whey protein or soy protein with resistance training. Twenty-seven untrained healthy subjects (18 female, 9 male) age 18 to 35 y were randomly assigned (double blind) to supplement with whey protein (W; 1.2 g/kg body mass whey protein + 0.3 g/kg body mass sucrose power, N = 9: 6 female, 3 male), soy protein (S; 1.2 g/kg body mass soy protein + 0.3 g/kg body mass sucrose powder, N = 9: 6 female, 3 male) or placebo (P; 1.2 g/kg body mass maltodextrine + 0.3 g/kg body mass sucrose powder, N = 9: 6 female, 3 male) for 6 wk. Before and after training, measurements were taken for lean tissue mass (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), strength (1-RM for bench press and hack squat), and an indicator of myofbrillar protein catabolism (urinary 3-methylhistidine). Results showed that protein supplementation during resistance training, independent of source, increased lean tissue mass and strength over isocaloric placebo and resistance training (P < 0.05). We conclude that young adults who supplement with protein during a structured resistance training program experience minimal beneficial effects in lean tissue mass and strength.

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Robert Arnhold, Nelson Ng and Gary Pechar

This study was conducted to determine the predictive ability of rated perceived exertion (RPE) of mentally retarded (MR) young adults with respect to heart rate (HR) and workload (WL). Subjects were a group of 10 mentally retarded adults (M age = 21.20 yrs, M IQ = 50.5) and a control group of 10 nonretarded adults (M age = 21.18 yrs). The procedure involved the performance of a continuous multistage treadmill test using a modified Balke protocol. Rated perceived exertion and heart rate were recorded after each minute. Correlation coefficients for both RPE/HR and RPE/WL were significant for both groups. Tests for differences in RPE/HR and RPE/WL correlation coefficients between the two groups indicated significance for RPE/HR but none for RPE/WL. Regression analysis revealed that variation in RPE could be explained by variations in HR and WL. The association between rated perceived exertion and heart rate and rated perceived exertion and workload suggests the use of the Borg scale with mentally retarded individuals.

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Lourdes Gutiérrez-Vilahú, Núria Massó-Ortigosa, Lluís Costa-Tutusaus, Miriam Guerra-Balic and Ferran Rey-Abella

The purpose of the study was to compare postural control in static standing in young adults with and without Down syndrome (DS), with eyes closed and eyesopen, before and after an 18-wk dance-based training program. The study included 11 young people with DS age 20.5 (1.3) yr and 11 without DS age 20.2 (2.0) yr.All parameters were recorded before and after the training program. Parameters related to center of pressure (COP; closed and open eyes) were recorded from aplatform with the participant in bipedal standing position during 30 s. The results suggest that young people with DS have worse COP control in both visual conditions (closed and open eyes) and are affected by visual information in a different way than their peers without DS. In the group of young adults with DS, thedance-based training program improved some parameters related to the use of visual input in controlling COP.

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Krissy D. Weisgarber, Darren G. Candow and Emelie S. M. Vogt

Purpose:

To determine the effects of whey protein before and during resistance exercise (RE) on body composition and strength in young adults.

Methods:

Participants were randomized to ingest whey protein (PRO; 0.3 g/kg protein; n = 9, 24.58 ± 1.8 yr, 88.3 ± 17.1 kg, 172.5 ± 8.0 cm) or placebo (PLA; 0.2 g/kg cornstarch maltodextrin + 0.1 g/kg sucrose; n = 8, 23.6 ± 4.4 yr, 82.6 ± 16.1 kg, 169.4 ± 9.2 cm) during RE (3 sets of 6–10 repetitions for 9 whole-body exercises), which was performed 4 d/wk for 8 wk. PRO and PLA were mixed with water (600 ml); 50% of the solution containing 0.15 g/kg of PRO or PLA was consumed immediately before the start of exercise, and ~1.9% of the remaining solution containing ~0.006 g/kg of PRO or PLA was consumed immediately after each training set. Before and after the study, measures were taken for leantissue mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle size of the elbow and knee flexors and extensors and ankle dorsiflexors and plantar flexors (ultrasound), and muscle strength (1-repetition-maximum chest press).

Results:

There was a significant increase (p < .05) in muscle size of the knee extensors (PRO 0.6 ± 0.4 cm, PLA 0.1 ± 0.5 cm), knee flexors (PRO 0.4 ± 0.6 cm, PLA 0.5 ± 0.7 cm) and ankle plantar flexors (PRO 0.6 ± 0.7 cm, PLA 0.8 ± 1.4 cm) and chest-press strength (PRO 16.6 ± 11.1 kg, PLA 9.1 ± 14.6 kg) over time, with no differences between groups.

Conclusion:

The ingestion of whey protein immediately before the start of exercise and again after each training set has no effect on muscle mass and strength in untrained young adults.