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Noah X. Tocci, David R. Howell, Dai Sugimoto, Corey Dawkins, Amy Whited and Donald Bae

, Hassell N , Andrews JR . Prevention of elbow injuries in youth baseball pitchers . Curr Sports Med Rep . 2009 ; 8 ( 5 ): 250 – 254 . PubMed doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181b7ee5f 10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181b7ee5f 19741352 2. Lyman S , Fleisig GS , Waterbor JW

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Dong-Rour Lee and Laurentius Jongsoon Kim


Many studies have explored closed kinetic chain (CKC) shoulder exercises (SEs) with a sling because they are safer and more effective than open-chain exercises, especially in early stages of treatment. However, the application of CKC SE in youth baseball players has rarely been attempted, although teenage baseball players also experience shoulder pain.


To investigate the effects of CKC SE on the peak torque of shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) in youth baseball players.


Single-group pretest, posttest.


Biomechanics laboratory.


23 Little League Baseball players with subacromial impingement syndrome.


The CKC SE with a sling was CKC shoulder-flexion exercise, extension exercise, IR exercise, and ER exercise. This exercise regimen was conducted 2 or 3 times/wk for 8 wk.

Main Outcome Measures:

The peak torque of shoulder IR and ER was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Concentric shoulder rotation was performed, with 5 repetitions at an angular velocity of 60°/s and 15 at 180°/s.


The IR and ER peak torque significantly increased at each angular velocity after the exercise program. In particular, the increase in IR and ER peak torque values was statistically significant at an angular velocity of 180°/s.


CKC SE was effective in increasing shoulder IR and ER strength, demonstrating its potential benefits in the prevention and treatment of shoulder injury. In addition, increased IR peak torque appears to improve throwing velocity in baseball players.

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Joseph J. Crisco, Michael J. Rainbow, Joel B. Schwartz and Bethany J. Wilcox

The purpose of this study was to examine the batting cage performance of wood and nonwood baseball bats used at the youth level. Three wood and ten nonwood bats were swung by 22 male players (13 to 18 years old) in a batting cage equipped with a 3-dimensional motion capture (300 Hz) system. Batted ball speeds were compared using a one-way ANOVA and bat swing speeds were analyzed as a function of bat moment of inertia by linear regression. Batted ball speeds were significantly faster for three nonwood bat models (P < .001), significantly slower for one nonwood model, and not different for six nonwood bats when compared with wood bats. Bat impact speed significantly (P < .05) decreased with increasing bat moment of inertia for the 13-, 14-, and 15-year-old groups, but not for the other age groups. Ball-bat coefficients of restitution (BBCOR) for all nonwood were greater than for wood, but this factor alone did not correlate with bat performance. Our findings indicate that increases in BBCOR and swing speed were not associated with faster batted ball speeds for the bats studied whose moment of inertia was substantially less than that of a wood bat of similar length.

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Leonardo Ruiz, Judy L. Van Raalte, Thaddeus France and Al Petitpas

steroids manufactured for horses and cattle from veterinarians ( Bouchet et al., 2013 ; Storms, 2008 ). Once amateur youth baseball players sign a professional contract, they are assigned to the MLB’s affiliated baseball academies, where they receive immediate benefits. The academies offer equipment

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Joseph J. Crisco, Nikolas J. Osvalds and Michael J. Rainbow

study was to compute the forces and moments required to swing baseball bats. We selected 3 baseball bat models with a range of bat MOIs that had been previously used in a study of youth baseball bat performance. 7 Given this range of MOIs, we also sought to determine if the peak forces and moments

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Rafael F. Escamilla, Glenn S. Fleisig, Coop DeRenne, Marcus K. Taylor, Claude T. Moorman III, Rodney Imamura, Edward Barakatt and James R. Andrews

We propose that learning proper hitting kinematics should be encouraged at a young age during youth baseball because this may help reinforce proper hitting kinematics as a player progresses to higher levels of baseball in their adult years. To enhance our understanding between youth and adult baseball hitting, kinematic and temporal analyses of baseball hitting were evaluated with a high-speed motion analysis system between 12 skilled youth and 12 skilled adult baseball players. There were only a small number of temporal differences between youth and adult hitters, with adult hitters taking significantly greater time than youth hitters during the stride phase and during the swing. Compared with youth hitters, adult hitters a) had significantly greater (p < .01) lead knee flexion when the hands started to move forward; b) flexed the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the transition phase (31° versus 13°); c) extended the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the bat acceleration phase (59° versus 32°); d) maintained a more open pelvis position at lead foot off ground; and e) maintained a more open upper torso position when the hands started to move forward and a more closed upper torso position at bat-ball contact. Moreover, adult hitters had greater peak upper torso angular velocity (857°/s versus 717°/s), peak left elbow extension angular velocity (752°/s versus 598°/s), peak left knee extension angular velocity (386°/s versus 303°/s), and bat linear velocity at bat-ball contact (30 m/s versus 25 m/s). The numerous differences in kinematic and temporal parameters between youth and adult hitters suggest that hitting mechanics are different between these two groups.

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Gretchen D. Oliver, Jessica K. Washington, Sarah S. Gascon, Hillary A. Plummer, Rafael F. Escamilla and James R. Andrews

youth baseball pitchers . J Strength Cond Res . 2015 ; 29 ( 6 ): 1494 – 1499 . PubMed ID: 25546449 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000797 25546449 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000797 9. Campbell BM , Stodden DF , Nixon MK . Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching . J Strength Cond Res

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Rafael F. Escamilla, Jonathan S. Slowik, Alek Z. Diffendaffer and Glenn S. Fleisig

stretch in professional baseball pitchers . Am J Sports Med . 2008 ; 36 ( 1 ): 137 – 141 . PubMed ID: 17986632 doi:10.1177/0363546507308938 10.1177/0363546507308938 17986632 14. Dun S , Loftice J , Fleisig GS , Kingsley D , Andrews JR . A biomechanical comparison of youth baseball pitches

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Brett S. Pexa, Eric D. Ryan, Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski and Joseph B. Myers

pitch type, pitch count, and pitching mechanics on risk of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers . Am J Sports Med . 2002 ; 30 ( 4 ): 463 – 468 . 12130397 6. Lyman S , Fleisig GS , Waterbor J , et al . Longitudunal study of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers

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Jin-Young Park, Junhyun Kim, Beom Ho Seo, Ho Dong Yu, Ju Hyun Sim, Jae Hyung Lee, Kyung Soo Oh and Seok Won Chung

baseball pitchers . Am J Sports Med . 2002 ; 30 ( 4 ): 463 – 468 . PubMed ID: 12130397 doi:10.1177/03635465020300040201 12130397 10.1177/03635465020300040201 7. Lyman S , Fleisig GS , Waterbor JW , et al . Longitudinal study of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers . Med Sci