The relative age effect (RAE) has become a well-studied consequence of organizations utilizing a cutoff date to establish age cohorts. Within this case study, students will explore and learn how to perform various statistical analyses (i.e., chi-square, effect sizes, standardized residuals) to determine whether the RAE exists among those who competed in the 2011 and 2012 Little League World Series (LLWS). Students will learn about the mission and history of Little League Baseball (LLB) and discuss potential changes and/or strategies that could be used by the organization to make the LLWS more inclusive. Furthermore, students can use the knowledge gained from this case study to critically analyze the current status of various other sport organizations to help develop potential strategies to ensure fairness and equality for all participating athletes.
Jess C. Dixon, Laura Chittle and Sean Horton
Ashley N. Weingartz and Stacy Warner
League Baseball World Series and History of the Tournament of State Champions . Background of Little League Baseball and the Little League Baseball World Series Little League International was founded in 1939 by Carl E. Stotz as a youth baseball league in his hometown of Williamsport, PA. Since its
Baseball. In the fourth chapter, The Eternal and Ever-Changing Game , the author sheds light on how the current state of youth sport in general, and youth baseball in particular, may be negatively affecting the way Major League Baseball is consumed by young people and how young ballplayers might be
Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr and Timothy Kellison
robust waste management programs, and researchers have examined best practices for promoting recycling behaviors among sport consumers, ranging from youth baseball spectators ( McCullough & Cunningham, 2011 ) to tailgaters ( Martin, Ross, & Irwin, 2015 ) to attendees of big time sport ( McCullough, 2013