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John L. Ivy, Lynne Kammer, Zhenping Ding, Bei Wang, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Yi-Hung Liao and Jungyun Hwang

Context:

Not all athletic competitions lend themselves to supplementation during the actual event, underscoring the importance of preexercise supplementation to extend endurance and improve exercise performance. Energy drinks are composed of ingredients that have been found to increase endurance and improve physical performance.

Purpose:

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a commercially available energy drink, ingested before exercise, on endurance performance.

Methods:

The study was a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. After a 12-hr fast, 6 male and 6 female trained cyclists (mean age 27.3 ± 1.7 yr, mass 68.9 ± 3.2 kg, and VO2 54.9 ± 2.3 ml · kg–1 · min–1) consumed 500 ml of either flavored placebo or Red Bull Energy Drink (ED; 2.0 g taurine, 1.2 g glucuronolactone, 160 mg caffeine, 54 g carbohydrate, 40 mg niacin, 10 mg pantothenic acid, 10 mg vitamin B6, and 10 μg vitamin B12) 40 min before a simulated cycling time trial. Performance was measured as time to complete a standardized amount of work equal to 1 hr of cycling at 70% Wmax.

Results:

Performance improved with ED compared with placebo (3,690 ± 64 s vs. 3,874 ± 93 s, p < .01), but there was no difference in rating of perceived exertion between treatments. β-Endorphin levels increased during exercise, with the increase for ED approaching significance over placebo (p = .10). Substrate utilization, as measured by open-circuit spirometry, did not differ between treatments.

Conclusion:

These results demonstrate that consuming a commercially available ED before exercise can improve endurance performance and that this improvement might be in part the result of increased effort without a concomitant increase in perceived exertion.

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Aaron T. Scanlan, Vincent J. Dalbo, Daniele Conte, Emilija Stojanović, Nenad Stojiljković, Ratko Stanković, Vladimir Antić and Zoran Milanović

receptors, elevated β -endorphins, and alterations in neuromuscular function. 3 However, caffeine supplementation has also been suggested to enhance technical skills in sport. 4 The efficacy of caffeine for skill attributes in basketball has received little attention, with only 1 study examining the

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Neil D. Clarke, Darren L. Richardson, James Thie and Richard Taylor

leading to an increase in neurotransmitter release and motor unit firing rates, pain suppression, reduced fatigue, and improved neuromuscular performance. Another possible mechanism through which caffeine may improve performance is by increasing the secretion of β -endorphins, 23 which may, at least

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Hermann Zbinden-Foncea, Isabel Rada, Jesus Gomez, Marco Kokaly, Trent Stellingwerff, Louise Deldicque and Luis Peñailillo

neurotransmitters. 10 Beyond those effects on the central nervous system, it has also been suggested that high caffeine doses spares glycogen utilization by increasing fat oxidation and boosts β-endorphins and catecholamine release. 11 Furthermore, caffeine has evidenced improvements in force production by

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Yara Fidelix, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado, Leonardo S. Fortes, James O. Hill, Ann E. Caldwell, João P. Botero and Wagner L. do Prado

neurotransmitters (eg, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor) related to depression and anxiety symptoms 38 , as well as increase β-endorphins secretion for reducing depression. 39 Aerobic exercise also produces bodily sensations like perceived anxiety, such as increased heart

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

experienced previous injuries), additional recovery may help reduce the risk of injury and enhance recovery from existing injuries. From a psychological perspective, CWI may have a positive effect on mood, as evidenced by increases in dopamine, serotonin, and β -endorphins. 107 This may be important during