In the 1980s, Title IX and other civil tights laws faced significant challenges within a political climate of Reaganism and the growing strength of the alliance between the New Right and the Religious Right. In the 1980s two major events impacted all civil rights legislation based on the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The first was the Grove City College v. Bell (1984) Supreme Court decision and the second was the 1987 Civil Rights Restoration Act passed over the veto of President Reagan in 1988. This article examines the public discourse of these events through a critical media reading of mainstream newspaper coverage throughout the 1980s, highlighting the central role of Title IX in the debate over civil rights. This examination highlights the importance of dominant discourse in the enforcement of civil rights laws, as well as in the resulting lack of opportunity development over time.
In a moment of uncertainty for antinuclear activists during the mid-1980s, prominent gay rights activist and political strategist David Mixner proposed to reinvigorate the movement through his new organization, People Reaching Out for Peace (PRO-Peace), and the Great Peace March for Nuclear
Murray F. Mitchell
Information about whose knowledge is accepted as important is valuable in understanding how a profession evolves. The term elders describes the individuals who control invisible networks of prestige and who determine what information is accepted for publication in professional journals. These published works stand as the foundation for the knowledge base of a discipline. The purpose of this article was to identify the elders in physical education teacher education (PETE) and to trace their academic genealogy. Elders were defined as major contributors to the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education from 1981 through 1989. The articles published by these subjects were generally, but not exclusively, research-related. Hence, aspects related to faculty research performance were selected as descriptors that may facilitate comparisons of PETE professors to other groups of professors and to future PETE professors. Subjects’ gender, prestige of doctoral program, mentoring, and prestige of current institution of employment were studied as these indicators represent major correlates with research productivity.
Past youth sports research studies that have had significant practical and theoretical impact were identified. These investigations were characterized by several features: (a) asking questions of practical importance, (b) integrating previous research or theory into the designs, (c) employing adequate methodological procedures and sample sizes, and (d) answering questions through series of interrelated investigations. In contrast, youth sports studies that did not have as much impact did not reflect many of these characteristics. Based on these findings, future directions in youth sports research were identified. It was concluded that if the sport psychologist is to conduct socially significant research that will make contributions to those involved in youth sports, three issues must be addressed. First, critical questions of practical significance must be identified. In an effort to identify these issues the results of a survey on psychological topics of practical significance to youth sport personnel was presented. In addition, beneficial and detrimental aspects of theory testing are outlined as well as the role of strong inference in conducting youth sports research. The second issue addressed is the use of varied types of research in studying youth sports. It is argued that descriptive, evaluation, and systems approach research are all needed and examples of each type of research are presented. The third issue examined is the need for a shift in methodological approaches when conducting youth sports research. Sport psychologists must realize that no single method is always best, and varied as well as innovative methodological procedures must be employed. The need to shift from a linear causation and convenient ANOVA categories model to a multidisciplinary, multivariate, and longitudinal approach is suggested.
Second World War, the FIVB has been mired in scandals since the mid 1980s. Embezzling funds, sexploitation of female athletes, internal politicking, corrupt governance, and fraternizing with authoritarian regimes (for instance, Iran or the Philippines) are just some of the ways in which the leaders of
April Henning and Jörg Krieger
and a Congress, struggled over the future and direction of the sport. During the key decades of transformation in the 1980s and 1990s, the organization was led by its president, Italian sports official Primo Nebiolo. Pressed by external changes favoring athlete pay, the risk of losing control over
Calvin Nite and Marvin Washington
NCAA” (p. 258). The growing dissent between the CFA and the NCAA led to significant faction alienation as the NCAA maintained the focus of protecting the interests of the entire membership. The Culmination of Tensions (1980s) The culmination of the tensions occurred in 1981 when the CFA negotiated a
In the last decade in France, the sport supply has changed due to a diversified demand. To understand this supply system, strategic analysis is used. Such an analysis allows characterization of the French sport system and identification of the transformations caused by social, cultural, economic, and political changes. This article provides evidence about the construction of a “mixed” national system linking sport federations to the state and, up to the 1980s, favoring high-performance sport. Evidence is also provided that since the 1980s, a system that takes into account economic profitability as well as individual needs has responded to diversified objectives. Local political administrations have thus played a preponderant role in sport policy, but the commercialization of sport has also competed with public politics.
Cheryl L. Cole and Amy Hribar
We interrogate Nike’s implication in the developments of 1980s and 1990s popular feminisms by contextualizing and examining the advertising strategies deployed by Nike in its efforts to seduce women consumers. Although Nike is represented as progressive and pro-women, we demonstrate Nike’s alliance with normative forces dominating 1980s America. We suggest that Nike’s solicitation relies on the logic of addiction, which demonized those people most affected by post-Fordist dynamics. While Nike’s narrations of “empowerment” appeal to a deep, authentic self located at the crossroads of power and lifestyle, we suggest that these narratives offer ways of thinking/identities that impede political action. Finally, we consider the relations among Nike, celebrity feminism, and the complex and invisible dynamics that enable transnationals to exploit Third World women workers.